What is God’s relationship with you?

The question isn’t what is YOUR relationship with God but what is GOD’S relationship with you.

Do you even question yourself about it? Do you care?

Well, I do and I care, hence I question myself. Religious people tend to say “Yes I have a good relationship with God, I know that He’s there for me, I always ask God’s help whenever I need it….” that shows your side of the relationship but not His.

Most people nowadays forget that their life on earth is a provisory state of existence and that nothing belongs to us as God is the owner and creator of all. We merely borrow a piece of Earth to live on.
We must be grateful for what we have no matter the quantity.
There is no obligation that puts God in a state to grant you anything. If you have the car that you have is because God granted your wish to have a car. If you have that gorgeous outfit it isn’t thanks to your choosing skills but because God granted you the job that you have which allowed you to have that money with which you bought the outfit. The examples are countless.

Everything is connected. You lose your job, you lose all the opportunities with it. Don’t take everything for granted.
I’ve noticed that God granted me many blessings in my life for which I’m grateful. I know that I would never have had them if it wasn’t for His kindness toward me. I discovered that there is way for the human beings to make a bond with God. It is a connection that can be felt if you know how to find it. That makes you ponder on His relationship with you. He knows you more than anyone can, it is a reson for you to make a bond with Him.

God is providing us His attention everyday of our lives, the only thing He asks of us in return is to believe in Him. We can see that through History, and mentioned so many times in the Bible, Torah and Quran.
You might have heard this short story before, but I’m sure not this way, so read on:


Your Lord called to Moses, “Go to the tyrannical people. The people of Pharaoh. Will they not fear?”

He said, “My Lord, I fear they will reject me. And I become stressed, and my tongue is not fluent, so send Aaron too. And they have a charge against me, so I fear they will kill me.

God said, “No. Go, both of you, with Our proofs. We will be with you, listening. Go to Pharaoh, and say, ‘We are the Messengers of the Lord of the Worlds. Let the Children of Israel go with us.’“

Pharaoh said, “Did we not raise you among us as a child, and you stayed among us for many of your years? And you committed that deed you committed, and you were ungrateful.”
Moses said, “I did it then, when I was of those astray. And I fled from you when I feared you; but my Lord gave me wisdom, and made me one of the messengers. Is that the favor you taunt me with, although you have enslaved the Children of Israel?”
Pharaoh said, “And what is the Lord of the Worlds?”
He said, “The Lord of the heavens and the earth, and everything between them, if you are aware.”
Pharaoh said to those around him, “Do you not hear?”
He said, “Your Lord and the Lord of your ancestors of old.”
Pharaoh said, “This messenger of yours, who is sent to you, is crazy.”
He said, “Lord of the East and the West, and everything between them, if you understand.”
Pharaoh said, “If you accept any god other than me, I will make you a prisoner.”
He said, “What if I bring you something convincing?”
Pharaoh said, “Bring it, if you are being truthful.”
So Moses cast his staff; and it was a serpent, plain to see. And he pulled his hand; and it was white, for all to see.
Pharaoh said to the dignitaries around him, “This is a skilled magician. He intends to drive you out of your land with his magic, so what do you recommend?”
They said, “Delay him and his brother, and send recruiters to the cities. To bring you every experienced magician.”
So the magicians were gathered for the appointment on a specified day. And it was said to the people, “Are you all gathered? That we may follow the magicians, if they are the winners.”
When the magicians arrived, they said to Pharaoh, “Is there a reward for us, if we are the winners?”
Pharaoh said, “Yes, and you will be among those favored.”
Moses said to them, “Present what you intend to present.”
So they threw their ropes and their sticks, and said, “By the majesty of Pharaoh, we will be the winners.”
Then Moses threw his staff, and behold, it began swallowing their trickery. And the magicians fell down prostrating.
They said, “We have believed in the Lord of the Worlds. The Lord of Moses and Aaron.”
Pharaoh said, “Did you believe in Him before I have given you permission? He must be your chief, who taught you magic. You will soon know. I will cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will crucify you all.”
They said, “No problem. To our Lord we will return. We are eager for our Lord to forgive us our sins, since we are the first of the believers.”
And We inspired Moses: “Travel with My servants by night. You will be followed.”
Pharaoh sent heralds to the cities. “These are a small gang. And they are enraging us. But we are a vigilant multitude.”
So We drove them out of gardens and springs. And treasures and noble dwellings. So it was. And We made the Children of Israel inherit them. And they pursued them at sunrise. When the two groups sighted each other, the followers of Moses said, “We are being overtaken.”
Moses said, “No; my Lord is with me, He will guide me.”
We inspired Moses: “Strike the sea with your staff.” Whereupon it parted, and each part was like a huge hill. And there We brought the others near. And We saved Moses and those with him, all together. Then We drowned the others. In that there is a sign, but most of them are not believers.
Surely, your Lord is the Almighty, the Merciful.

And relate to them the story of Abraham. When he said to his father and his people, “What do you worship?”
They said, “We worship idols, and we remain devoted to them.”
He said, “Do they hear you when you pray? Or do they benefit you, or harm you?”
They said, “But we found our ancestors doing so.”
He said, “Have you considered what you worship. You and your ancient ancestors? They are enemies to me, but not so the Lord of the Worlds. He who created me, and guides me. He who feeds me, and waters me. And when I get sick, He heals me. He who makes me die, and then revives me. He who, I hope, will forgive my sins on the Day of the Reckoning.”
“My Lord! Grant me wisdom, and include me with the righteous. And give me a reputation of truth among the others. And make me of the inheritors of the Garden of Bliss. And forgive my father—he was one of the misguided. And do not disgrace me on the Day they are resurrected. The Day when neither wealth nor children will help. Except for him who comes to God with a sound heart.”
And Paradise will be brought near for the righteous. And the Blaze will be displayed to the deviators. And it will be said to them, “Where are those you used to worship?” Besides God. Can they help you, or help themselves?” Then they will be toppled into it, together with the seducers. And the soldiers of Satan, all of them.
They will say, as they feud in it. “By God, We were in evident error. For equating you with the Lord of the Worlds. No one misled us except the sinners. Now we have no intercessors. And no sincere friend. If only we could have another chance, we would be among the faithful.”
Surely in this is a sign, but most of them are not believers.
Your Lord is the Almighty, the Merciful.

The people of Noah disbelieved the messengers. Their brother Noah said to them, “Do you not fear? I am to you a faithful messenger. So fear God, and obey me. I ask of you no payment for this. My payment is only from the Lord of the Worlds. So fear God, and obey me.”
They said, “Shall we believe in you, when it is the lowliest who follow you?”
He said, “What do I know about what they do? Their account rests only with my Lord, if you have sense. And I am not about to drive away the believers. I am only a clear warner.”
They said, “If you do not refrain, O Noah, you will be stoned.”
He said, “My Lord, my people have denied me. So judge between me and them decisively, and deliver me and the believers who are with me.
So We delivered him and those with him in the laden Ark. Then We drowned the rest. In that is a sign, but most of them are not believers.
Your Lord is the Almighty, the Merciful.

The people of Lot disbelieved the messengers. When their brother Lot said to them, “Do you not fear? I am to you a faithful messenger. So fear God, and obey me. I ask of you no payment for it. My payment is only from the Lord of the Worlds. Do you approach the males of the world? And forsake the wives your Lord created for you? Indeed, you are intrusive people.”
They said, “Unless you refrain, O Lot, you will be expelled.”
He said, “I certainly deplore your conduct.” “My Lord, save me and my family from what they do.”
So We saved him and his family, altogether. Except for an old woman among those who tarried. Then We destroyed the others. And We rained down on them a rain. Dreadful is the rain of those forewarned.
Surely in this is a sign, but most of them are not believers.
Your Lord is the Almighty, the Merciful.
It is a revelation from the Lord of the Worlds. The Faithful Spirit came down with it. Upon your heart, that you may be one of the warners.


Don’t neglect your creator. Make a bond with Him. Every humans can do it. Every humans must.

The Theory of Fate – Update

Not many believe in the Day of Judgment. Of course not! We’re in the 21th century, we’re so sophisticated that we prefer to believe in what we have proof or in what we think make sense. “The story of ancient times” are too old for us to think about or to still believe in.

Wrong! The Holy Scriptures are never too old. All of them warn us about that Day where we’ll be judged for our deeds. Those who believe in this Event are divided in two groups, those who believe that we’ll attain the judgment with our bodies and those who believe that it will be with our souls only.

In my opinion, souls are not made of matter, hence they shouldn’t fear to be punished as nothing can harm them, they’re spirits after all.

Bodies are made of matter, they can feel the pain or the joys, so they can be rewarded or punished.
I am of those who believe that we’ll attain the judgment with our bodies.

If you’ve read this far, it means that you’re interested. Good! So now comes the interesting part.

You may have previously read my book The Theory of Fate where I’ve given detailed explanations on what the Holy Scriptures say about that Day, in accordance with what science says. And you probably remember that Volcanoes will be the source of the Apocalypse and the Day of Judgment.

Well, I have a little update to the book, which you won’t find in it because it takes a long time to edit and upload again. I preferred to add it here.
I’ve been reading randomly one of the Holy Scriptures; the Quran. And I’ve noticed something that I haven’t seen before. These verses:

28. Woe on that Day to the deniers.
29. “Proceed to what you used to deny.”
30. “Proceed to a shadow of three columns.”
31. Offering no shade, and unavailing against the flames.
32. It shoots sparks as castles.
33. As if they were bundles of rope (or “bright yellow cooper”).
34. Woe on that Day to the falsifiers.
35. This is a Day when they will not speak.
36. And they will not be allowed to apologize.
37. Woe on that Day to the rejecters.
38. This is the Day of Separation; We have gathered you, together with the ancients.

This sentence “Proceed to a shadow of three columns.” is the answer to a question I’ve mentioned in the book; how many Super Volcanoes will be active on the Day of Judgment. The answer is: three, simple as that.

But where exacly will they be?

The hotspots are the tunnels from where the magma gets out. As the Earth’s crust is in constant move, every few millions of years the hotspots change places. For instance, the Yellowstone which is in Wyoming, will be in the Pacific Ocean.

This is the picture of Pangea Ultima (the next super continent) I’ve found online.

These are the current super volcanoes location

If we locate all the super volcanoes on this map, they will be about here:

Three of these will be enough in the Day of Judgment.

But how many will there be for the End of The World?

Only God knows when the Apocalypse will be upon us. So let’s not forget what awaits us, because when that day comes, there is no coming back.

If you want to know more about what the Holy Scriptures and Science say about the Apocalypse, you can buy the book here.

What about #65

Islam and the spiritual realm

We’ve heard a lot about Islam these recent years. Most often in a bad way. But why is a religion so wrongly pointed out? Because some of its followers misunderstood the concept of religion vs faith.
You can have a religion but no faith, as you can have a faith but no religion.
The faith resides in the spiritual realm while the religion resides in your actions and beliefs. The religion can be interpreted in various ways by the believer. But the faith is lived and felt by different religions.
When people do bad actions in the name of a religion, it’s because they believe that God can’t do that action without their help. They diminish the power of God. They believe that God needs them to accomplish something, that they’re the lawyers of God. They lack of faith, they only see what’s outside and leave the inside behind.
The one who has faith, can be of any religion. He lives with his soul, he perceives things that others don’t, he understand the law of life while those who practice a religion don’t understand. He firmly believes in God by the knowledge of his soul.
Unfortunately not all men of God have faith, either be it a Priest, an Imam, a Rabi or a monk.
I live in a spiritual family. Where my dad taught me that everything has a purpose and nothing is a coincidence. Signs are around us to help us, and to make us see what we’re supposed to understand.
I believe that God communicate with us through his signs. We’re able to achieve amazing things when we pay attention to what’s out there with our soul.
Islam teach us to us this gift (soul) to see the wonders around us, to understand his signs, to build a bridge between Him and us. Islam is far more than a way of worshipping God and wearing a hijab.
Some muslims consider themselves muslims even though they’re assassins and thieves.
While others consider themselves Christians even though they live like Muslims yet they don’t know it.
Faith is the only link we all have to attain the spiritual realm where many things are possible.
As a muslim I believe that God sent us many messengers among which Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed to make us aware of our potential and to make us understand that He is powerful over all things. He doesn’t need our help as He doesn’t need us, but WE need Him as we’re nothing without His will or help.

The Theory of Fate – Chapter 5/part 9

It will be only a single decree
The day when the horn will be blown and we shall gather them together while they will have turned blue on that day and will be whispering among themselves: you did not remain (in the graves) more than ten (days).

And (remember) the day when the heaven shall be rent asunder with clouds, and the angels shall be sent down, with a grand descending.

And when the trumpet is sounded, that day it will be a distressful day

And listen, the day when the caller will call from a place nearby

Surely the day of decision is an appointed time a day when the trumpet will be blown, and you will come in large groups and the heaven shall be opened, and it will become as gates and the mountains shall be moved away from their places and they will be as if they were a mirage

They wait only but a single shout which will size them while they are disputing then they will not be able to make bequest nor they will return to their family and the trumpet will be blown (2nd blow) and behold from the Graves they will come out quickly to their Lord

How will you do then, if you disbelieve, guard yourselves against a day which will turn the children’s hair grey
When the order will come the horn will be blown,  but the thing is that at first I thought that this loud sound would come from the supervolcano but a lot worst than the Krakatoe volcano did. But then I changed my mind when I read this verse And listen, the day when the caller will call from a place nearby. This verse is speaking of a creature who calls. It will be such a loud sound that it will be able to kill all of us instantly they will not be able to make bequest nor they will return to their family. Actually it is normal that a really loud sound kills someone:

Can sound kill you? The short answer is “yes” — and, rather shockingly, the European Space Agency says that it now has such a sonic weapon in its arsenal that, if it was so inclined, could kill you. For the long answer, read on.

The question is, is 154 decibels enough to kill you? In all honesty, probably not — unless, perhaps, you were stuck with your head inside the horn for a prolonged period. 150 decibels is usually considered enough to burst your eardrums, but the threshold for death is usually pegged at around 185-200 dB. A passenger car driving by at 25 feet is about 60 dB, being next to a jackhammer or lawn mower is around 100 dB, a nearby chainsaw is 120 dB. Generally, 150 dB (eardrum rupture) is only achieved if you stand really close to a jet aircraft during take-off or you’re near an explosive blast.

 If you actually wanted to intentionally kill someone with a sonic weapon, there isn’t a whole lot of research on how you would actually go about doing it. The general consensus is that a loud enough sound could cause an air embolism in your lungs, which then travels to your heart and kills you. Alternatively, your lungs might simply burst from the increased air pressure. (Acoustic energy is just waves of varying sound pressure; the higher the energy, the higher the pressure, the louder the sound.) In some cases, where there’s some kind of underlying physical weakness, loud sounds might cause a seizure or heart attack — but there’s very little evidence to suggest this.

 Perhaps more significantly, though, it’s important to note that a sonic weapon doesn’t have to be lethal or incredibly loud to be effective. High-intensity ultrasonic sound (generally anything above 20KHz) can cause physical damage. Some very low frequencies (infrasound) can apparently cause your eyeballs to vibrate, making it very hard to see. Targeted “sonic bullets” that cause localized pain (or simply burst your eardrums) is probably enough to immobilize most non-action-hero humans.

 When the heaven shall be opened and becomes as gates, that’s not something we can see with our present eyes. There are two things which might turn the childrens’s hair grey. Either the sun’s Uv’s or the volcanes ashes. 

——-——-——-——-——-——-——-——-——-——-——-——-

Tomorrow as you might know is “Around a cup Of Tea” but there will also be the Conclusion of The Theory Of Fate

The Theory of Fate – Chapter 5/part 8

​Then when the heaven is rent asunder and it becomes (rosy or red) like paint

And when a single blast is sounded on the trumpet, and earth and the mountains are heaved up and then crushed in a single crash. On that day the great event come to pass inevitable,

and the heaven will be rent asunder for that day it will be frail and torn up

Whereon the heaven will be cleft asunder.

A day whereon men will be like moths scattered about

O ye who believe! fear Allah and believe in His Messenger, He will give you a double share of his mercy, and will provide for you a light wherein you will walk, and will grant you forgiveness and verily Allah is most forgiving and merciful

Here we are back to the sky which will be cleft asunder, well… if volcanic eruption acts so badly to the ozone layer than that might be the explanation. We’re aware of the ozone layer protection, The ozone layer is one layer of the stratosphere, the second layer of the Earth’s atmosphere. The stratosphere is the mass of protective gases clinging to our planet. 

 The stratosphere gets its name because it is stratified, or layered: as elevation increases, the stratosphere gets warmer. The stratosphere increases in warmth with elevation because ozone gases in the upper layers absorb intense ultraviolet radiation from the sun.

 Ozone is only a trace gas in the atmosphere—only about 3 molecules for every 10 million molecules of air. But it does a very important job. Like a sponge, the ozone layer absorbs bits of radiation hitting Earth from the sun. Even though we need some of the sun’s radiation to live, too much of it can damage living things. The ozone layer acts as a shield for life on Earth.
Ozone is good at trapping a type of radiation called ultraviolet radiation, or UV light, which can penetrate organisms’ protective layers, like skin, damaging DNA molecules in plants and animals. There are two major types of UV light: UVB and UVA. 
UVB is the cause of skin conditions like sunburns, and cancers like basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. 

 People used to think that UVA light, the radiation used in tanning beds, is harmless because it doesn’t cause burns. However, scientists now know that UVA light is even more harmful than UVB, penetrating more deeply and causing a deadly skin cancer, melanoma, and premature aging. The ozone layer, our Earth’s sunscreen, absorbs about 98 percent of this devastating UV light

Now saying that the sky will be rosy or red like paint makes me think of the sunsets’s or sunrises’s hue which turns redder after an eruption:

The eruption of Krakatoa on August 26–27, 1883, completely collapsed its Indonesian island, blasting the stratosphere with volcanic dust and sulphur dioxide. A catastrophe of incredible scale for anyone in its radius, the natural disaster impacted the entire world with skies suddenly changed, particularly the sunsets which many reported as having altered, otherworldly colors.

Artists were among those mesmerized by the Krakatoa sunsets, and captured them on canvas with vibrant detail then impossible for photography.

Four years following Krakatoa’s eruption, the Earth was oddly cold, something scientists later found was sulfur dioxide in the high atmosphere reacting with water vapor, making very fine particles of sulphuric acid. These aerosols reflected back some sunlight, and also created the strange sunsets.

 Munch described the sunset he witnessed after Krakatoa:

 “I was walking along the road with two friends — then the sun set — all at once the sky became blood red — and I felt overcome with melancholy. I stood still and leaned against the railing, dead tired — clouds like blood and tongues of fire hung above the blue-black fjord and the city. My friends went on, and I stood alone, trembling with anxiety. I felt a great, unending scream piercing through nature.”

 It haunted him, and finally in 1893 he painted it as he remembered. “The Scream” (1893).  However, there was another artist who made hundreds of paintings of the post-volcano sunsets while they happened. In “The Krakatoa Sunsets,” part of the recently published The Public Domain Review: Selected Essays, 2011-2013, Richard Hamblyn writes “by late October 1883 most of the world, including Britain, was being subjected to lurid evening displays, caused by the scattering of incoming light by the meandering volcanic haze.” British artist William Ascroft, from his vantage on the Thames in Chelsea, painted pastel after pastel sunset until they faded in 1886. While not as well known as Munch, Ascroft left a blazing climatological archive of the skies.

 Krakatoa was unusually cataclysmic, with the loudest noise ever made by Earth, heard up to 3,000 miles away (consider hearing a noise in New York made in Los Angeles). At least 36,000 people were killed. But it’s not the only volcano to have influenced sunsets in art. An analysis last year of over 300 works from the Tate and National Gallery in London covered 50 volcanic explosions and the skies after, potentially to compare to modern aerosol pollution. These volcano “afterglows” were visual oddities, alluring to artists, that are now a form of scientific record, and reminders of the power of the Earth.

It’s undoubted that after a super volcano eruption the sun will be hidden so there will be no light and God will provide for the believers a light wherein we will walk. 

Here is what people see after an eruption:

Ash falls vary widely in intensity, size of the ash particles, and the degree to which light from the sun is obscured or blocked completely. Because of the unexpected darkness during daylight hours, loud thunder and lightning, and the sometimes strong smell of sulfur during an ash fall, many people describe the experience as eerie and frightening, disorienting and confusing, or dreadful. In extreme ash fall, for example when ash thickness is more than 5-10 cm, people may feel stunned and fearful of the conditions, have a difficult time breathing if a well-sealed shelter is not available. If caught outside during low visibility, people may become lost or extremely disoriented.

People being scattered and disoriented is part of the ash fall and this remembers me of a proverbe:

The light  24.40

Or their deeds are like darkness within an vast and deep sea which is covered by waves, upon which are waves, over which are clouds: layers of darkness one upon another. When one puts out his hand [therein], he can hardly see it. And he to whom Allah has not granted light – for him there is no light.

The Theory Of Fate – Chapter 5/part 7

These are some of the VEI 8 supervolcanoes but not always the most threatening:

City of Rocks State Park, Galán, La Garita Caldera, Island Park Caldera, Misema Caldera, Pacana Caldera, Taupo Volcano, Lake Taupo, Lake Toba, Yellowstone Caldera

So these three verses seem to speak of a volcanic activity. As written above, strong  volcanic ashes covers the sun light for a long time as happened 250 million years ago or even 65 million years ago, as it covers the sun, it covers the faces too, flames of Fire and smoke is what volcanoes do best, it comes from underneath us as it comes from the Earth’s core and from above after the ejection. There isn’t a better explanation. If we look for the long-lasting climate change of the Siberian Traps, we’ll see that the sun has been banned for a long time. 

A super volcano is the most destructive force on this planet. Only a few exist in the world. They lie dormant for hundreds of thousands of years as a vast reservoir of magma builds up inside them before finally they unleash their apocalyptic force, capable of obliterating continents.

The last eruption of a super volcano was in Toba, Sumatra, 75,000 years ago. It had 10,000 times the explosive force of Mount St. Helens and changed life on Earth forever. Thousands of cubic kilometres of ash was thrown into the atmosphere – so much that it blocked out light from the sun all over the world. 2,500 miles away 35 centimetres of ash coated the ground. Global temperatures plummeted by 21 degrees. The rain would have been so poisoned by the gasses that it would have turned black and strongly acidic. Man was pushed to the edge of extinction, the population forced down to just a couple of thousand. Three quarters of all plants in the northern hemisphere were killed.

The usual effects of a giant eruption, is acid rain, ozone depletion, a massive dose of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere,  the ingredients are in place for a mass extinction.

The primary role of volcanic sulfur aerosols in causing short-term changes in the world’s climate following some eruptions, instead of volcanic ash, was hypothesized by scientists in the early 1980’s. They based their hypothesis on the effects of several explosive eruptions in Indonesia and the world’s largest historical effusive eruption in Iceland.

Scientists studied three historical explosive eruptions of different sizes in Indonesia–Tambora (1815), Krakatau (1883), and Agung (1963). They noted that decreases in surface temperatures after the eruptions were of similar magnitude (0.18-1.3 °C). The amount of material injected into the stratosphere, however, differed greatly. By comparing the estimated amount of ash vs. sulfur injected into the stratosphere by each eruption, it was suggested that the longer residence time of sulfate aerosols, not the ash particles which fall out within a few months of an eruption, was the paramount controlling factor (Rampino and Self, 1982).

In contrast to these explosive eruptions, one of the most severe volcano-related climate effects in historical times was associated with a largely nonexplosive eruption that produced very little ash–the 1783 eruption of Laki crater-row in Iceland. The eruption lasted 8-9 months and extruded about 12.3 km3 of basaltic lava over an area of 565 km2. A bluish haze of sulfur aerosols all over Iceland destroyed most summer crops in the country; the crop failure led to the loss of 75% of all livestock and the deaths of 24% of the population (H. Sigurdsson, 1982). The bluish haze drifted east across Europe during the 1783-1784 winter, which was unusually severe.

Clearly, these examples suggested that the explosivity of an eruption and the amount of ash injected into the stratosphere are not the main factors in causing a change in Earth’s climate. Instead, scientists concluded that it must be the amount of sulfur in the erupting magma.

The eruption of El Chichon, Mexico, in 1982 conclusively demonstrated this idea was correct. The explosive eruption injected at least 8 Mt of sulfur aerosols into the atmosphere, and it was followed by a measureable cooling of parts of the Earth’s surface and a warming of the upper atmosphere. A similar-sized eruption at Mount St. Helens in 1980, however, injected only about 1 Mt of sulfur aerosols into the stratosphere. The eruption of Mount St. Helens injected much less sulfur into the atmosphere–it did not result in a noticeable cooling of the Earth’s surface. The newly launched TOMS satellite (in 1978) made it possible to measure these differences in the eruption clouds. Such direct measurements of the eruption clouds combined with surface temperatures make it possible to study the corrleation between volcanic sulfur aerosols (instead of ash) and temporary changes in the world’s climate after some volcanic eruptions.

 The most significant impacts from large explosive eruptions come from the conversion of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to sulfuric acid (H2SO4), which condenses rapidly in the stratosphere to form fine sulfate aerosols. The aerosols increase the reflection of radiation from the Sun back into space and thus cool the Earth’s lower atmosphere or troposphere; however, they also absorb heat radiated up from the Earth, thereby warming the stratosphere.

Ozone depletion promoted by volcanic sulfur aerosols. The sulfate aerosols also promote complex chemical reactions on their surfaces that alter chlorine and nitrogen chemical species in the stratosphere. This effect, together with increased stratospheric chlorine levels from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) pollution, generates chlorine monoxide (ClO), which destroys ozone (O3)

The Theory of Fate – Chapter 5/part 6

Who never heard of a volcano? But all of them are not equal. Some are worse than others:

A volcano is a rupture on the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

Earth’s volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle. Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust’s interior plates, e.g., in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of “plate hypothesis” volcanism. Volcanism away from plate boundaries has also been explained as mantle plumes. These so-called “hotspots”, for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth. Volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another.

 Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. One such hazard is that volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature; the melted particles then adhere to the turbine blades and alter their shape, disrupting the operation of the turbine. Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the sun and cool the Earth’s lower atmosphere (or troposphere); however, they also absorb heat radiated up from the Earth, thereby warming the upper atmosphere (or stratosphere). Historically, so-called volcanic winters have caused catastrophic famines.

Super volcanoes differ from normal volcanoes in many ways. The stereotypical volcano is a towering cone, but super volcanoes form in depressions in the ground called calderas. When a normal volcano erupts lava gradually builds up in the mountain before releasing it. In super volcanoes when magma nears the surface it does not reach it, instead it begins to fill massive underground reservoirs. The magma melts the nearby rock to form more extremely thick magma. The magma is so viscous that volcanic gasses that normally trigger an eruption cannot pass, so a massive amount of pressure begins to build up. This continues for hundreds of thousands of years until an eruption occurs, which blasts away a huge amount of ground, forming a new caldera

A supervolcano is any volcano capable of producing a volcanic eruption with an ejecta mass greater than 1015 kg. They can also form at convergent plate boundaries (for example, Toba). Large igneous provinces can cover huge areas with lava and volcanic ash, causing long-lasting climate change (such as the triggering of a small ice age or global warming), which can threaten species with extinction.

Large igneous provinces (LIP) such as Iceland, the Siberian Traps, Deccan Traps, and the Ontong Java Plateau are extensive regions of basalts on a continental scale resulting from flood basalt eruptions. When created, these regions often occupy several thousand square kilometres and have volumes on the order of millions of cubic kilometers. In most cases, the lavas are normally laid down over several million years. They release large amounts of gases. The Réunion hotspot produced the Deccan Traps about 66 million years ago, coincident with the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. The scientific consensus is that a meteor impact was the cause of the extinction event, but the volcanic activity may have caused environmental stresses on extant species up to the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. Additionally, the largest flood basalt event (the Siberian Traps) occurred around 250 million years ago and was coincident with the largest mass extinction in history, the Permian–Triassic extinction event, although it is also unknown whether it was completely responsible for the extinction event.

 Such outpourings are not explosive though lava fountains may occur. Many volcanologists consider that Iceland may be a LIP that is currently being formed. The last major outpouring occurred in 1783–84 from the Laki fissure which is approximately 40 km (25 mi) long. An estimated 14 km3 of basaltic lava was poured out during the eruption.

 The Ontong Java Plateau now has an area of about 2,000,000 km2, and the province was at least 50% larger before the Manihiki and Hikurangi Plateaus broke away.

 Massive explosive eruptions:

 Location of Yellowstone hotspot over time (numbers indicate millions of years before the present).

Volcanic eruptions are classified using the Volcanic Explosivity Index, or VEI. It is a logarithmic scale, which means that an increase of one in VEI number is equivalent to a tenfold increase in volume of erupted material. VEI 7 or VEI 8 eruptions are so powerful that they often form circular calderas rather than cones because the downward withdrawal of magma causes the overlying rock mass to collapse into the empty magma chamber beneath it.

 VEI 9 Despite some claims, there are no explosive eruptions known to volcanologists that are confirmed to have attained a VEI of 9. To do so, the eruption would have to release the Dense Rock Equivalent (DRE) of at least 10,000 km3 of ejecta. There are no known deposits of this volume that can be attributed to any single eruption.

 VEI 8 eruptions are colossal events that throw out at least 1,000 km3 bulk volume (Lake Toba).

VEI 7 events eject bulk volume at least 100 km3 (24 cu mi).

 VEI 6 eruptions occurred at Krakatoa in 1883 and Mount Pinatubo in 1991. These eruptions ejected ~10 and 25 km3 bulk volume, respectively. At Krakatoa, the Dutch colonial authorities claimed that the death toll was 36,417, but other estimates consider that the death toll is in excess of 120,000.

 The 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption was a VEI 5 eruption, with 1.2 km3 bulk volume of ejecta.