What about … #37

Today I’ll try to explain what the dark energy and dark matter are in my opinion.
We all heard of the theory of relativity which is quite dithering.

There are two kinds of relativity, the first is the special and the second is the general.
The first one says:
1. That the speed of light is constant. It never changes, whichever speed you travel with the speed of light will be the same. For this to happen, time slows down for the one who is moving close to the speed of light. It has to be close to the speed of light or at least half the speed of light, otherwise you won’t notice a thing.

2. If somebody is travelling at a different speed or direction than you, they will disagree with you on whether certain events happened at the same time. For instance, if you’re standing on a moving staircase moving at 2 km/Ⓗ and someone is watching you standing still, this person will see you moving at 2 km/Ⓗ. Now if you start walking on this stairs, you’ll see yourself walking at 2 km/Ⓗ but this person who is watching you will conclude that you’re walking at 4 km/Ⓗ. In fact both of you are right, it is a question of relativity.

3. If something is moving very fast, it gets shorter in the direction that it is moving. If you take a ball hanged on a piece of rope, and you make it spin faster and faster you’ll notice your ball getting shrink a little in the direction it is spinning, but if it spins close to the speed of light you’ll see it shrink a lot.

Now in the general relativity we can speak of the twin paradox which had nothing to do with our topic but to give a breve description we may say that two people moving apart, the first at a normal speed and the second close to the speed of light, if they could see each other’s watch, they would see each other’s time slowing down even though only close to the speed of light that time slows down. So when this person who is traveling close to the speed of light decides to go back, he will find the other person much older than him.

Speeding Up and Slowing Down Are the Same Thing, for e.g when you take a cab you feel the acceleration when the taxi driver accelerate, you feel a “force” pushing you behind. When this driver slows down, you feel something pushing you forward. in fact this is called “inertia”: something which has mass shouldn’t be changing state – either in motion or still. This force which pushes you backwards when the cab driver accelerates is the same sensation as gravity. When he slows down, it is your seat belt which stops you from moving forward, but you still feel this gravity which pulls you. It’s the same thing if you find yourself floating in space and a spaceship accelerates beneath you, you’ll feel or see yourself falling into the spaceship and as soon as it reaches you, you’ll feel as if gravity was pulling you from beneath. This is a way to say that gravity and acceleration is the same thing. To make myself clear I’m not speaking about the famous Newton’s gravity ( the more mass an object has, the more gravity it produce), I’m speaking about the source of gravity as mentioned above when you were floating in space. Massive object floating through space, attracts space to itself, which we call curved space or curved space-time. As “time” never leaves “space” it is better to call it spacetime.
The spin of a heavy object, such as Earth, should twist and distort the space-time around it.
Now what all this has to do with dark energy and dark matter? Well it is complicated to describe but you see, the dark energy is what is expanding the universe, so this dark energy is the pillar which holds the universe from crumbling upon us. without it the universe would have crunched already. But what is wonderful is that it’s an invisible pillar. Can you imagine a big building with its walls, its doors, its windows and even its roof but with nothing visible to hold the roof? So this dark energy coming from nowhere – it’s better to say “are” – are the pillars of this spectacular huge sky which stands all around us.

Black holes is a region of space having a gravitational field so intense that no matter or radiation can escape. So black holes slow down the expansion, absorbing whatever comes by. It turns out that roughly 68% of the universe is dark energy. Dark matter makes up about 27%. The rest – everything on Earth, everything ever observed with all of our instruments, all normal matter – adds up to less than 5% of the universe.
We know that space is not a completely empty space, we can find particles mainly, hydrogen and helium, or even gravitational waves which are ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as waves at the speed of light, generated in certain gravitational interactions that propagate outward from their source, but I believe that space isn’t completely empty by no means. It is huge gravitational field.
Between the possibilities for the dark energy to be – a property of space, a new dynamic fluid, or a new theory of gravity – I would personally believe that it’s a property of space! It’s the pillar which holds and expands the heavens.

The dark matter is even more complicated, although it has not been directly observed, its existence and properties are inferred from its gravitational effects such as the motions of visible matter, gravitational lensing, its influence on the universe’s large-scale structure, and its effects in the cosmic microwave background. Dark matter is transparent to electromagnetic radiation it is so dense and small that it fails to absorb or emit enough radiation to be detectable with current imaging technology. Some galaxies are made of 99% of dark matter such as Dragonfly 44, an ultra diffuse galaxy with the mass of the Milky Way galaxy, but with nearly no discernable stars or galactic structure or even VIRGOHI21.

What about… #29 

Today’s post isn’t really about books, but I have to start by speaking about one that I’ve just finished. The latest novel by Dan Brown; Origin.

I have to say that I was a little disappointed. The book’s topic (about which I’ll speak further) isn’t the problem but having read all of his novels, I find this one a remake of Inferno or The Da Vinci Code or even The Lost Symbol. Robert Langdon; which is the main Charater of most of Brown’s stories, fleeing a danger with a women to try to resolve an enigma.

Usually there is something innovative which makes every book a new story, such as in “Inferno” Robert Langdon, lost his memory and was shot. In “The Da Vinci Code” everything was unexpected. In “The Lost Symbol” Robert Langdon was unexpectedly called to a meeting place to find just a severed hand waiting for him. But this one looks like a bit of every past books, Robert Langdon is in the same kind of trouble he was in every other book! Nothing unexpected.

What I DID like about this book is that it speaks a lot about art, history and science.

Now the main topic of this book is the Origin of men and its future. An atheist scientist called Kirsch made a phenomenal dicovery which cost him his life before he can share it with the world. Robert Langdon and a woman called Vidal must do the impossible to broadcast the discovery even though they are threatened to be killed by someone who wishes to stop them spreading the news, that the creation can exist without a God.

Kirsch as a believer in the Darwinian theory (but not entirely satisfied as Darwin didn’t explain how life arrived on earth in the first place) made his own reasearch.

The idea is that Life can create itself with the right ingredients and conditions; it’s a paradox when we’re aware that the univese is a world of Entropy or should we say Chaos. Let me give you some details:

We build a castle of sand by the sea, when a wave hits the castle it disorganize the sand castle into scattered grains: no more castle.

Things are irreversible, when you put a hot mug of coffee on the table, it gets cold. The coffee never magically reheat itself.

Entropy is just a fancy way of saying that things fall apart. An organized system, inevitably deteriorates. Sand castles never spontaneously appear in the universe, they only disappear.

So Kirsch enhanced a technique used in 1953 by two scientists Muller & Urey who tried to recreate the Primordial Soup, trying to create life within a flask of non living chemicals.

Chemists after them tried repeatedly using different combination of ingredients, different heath patterns but nothing worked.

But what is a Premordial Soup? After duplicating the chemicals that existed in the early oceans and atmosphere – water, methane, ammonia, and hydrogen – Muller and Urey heated all of this to simulate the boiling seas. Then they shocked it with electric charges to mimic lightning and they finally let the mixture cool just as the planet’s oceans had cooled. Of course that didn’t work. So in addition to this, Kirsch added electromagnetism to a 64 year old flask belonging to Muller and Urey and that’s it; he created Primitive organism.

According to him the Premordial Soup needed electromagnetism to put chaos in order, to create life. Therefore, if life simply happened as an inevitable by product of the laws of nature we have to conclude that because life spontaneously appeared here on earth, it almost certainly did the same thing elsewhere in the cosmos. Meaning man is not unique and man is not alone in the universe.

My first reaction was the same as Robert’s in the book: if the laws of nature can actually create life, then who created the laws?

We don’t need life to happen by product of the laws to believe that other lives exists in the cosmos. Who didn’t wonder what’s up there, gazing at the night’s sky?

Those billions of stars and what’s in between, hold such mysteries that we’re unable to provide all the answers needed to cease to be amazed at what we look at. The sky (universe) is an unfriendly place for any earthly living creature, and the “luck” as some atheists would say, has put us in the perfect planet that sustains life in all sense. But of course among the multitude of different stars, it is unthinkable that we’re the only living beings in such a vast creation. What’s out there is so far that we’re not (yet) able to reach out for them. After all…. after seeing all those Alien movies saying that they are monsters wanting to destroy us in any possible way….. I’m not sure that they are so far from us for no reason. In reality, I believe that we have our own issues here, for land, for beliefs, for ethnicity… can you imagine if we had Aliens as well to negotiate with? We’re not mature enough to handle something smarter, stronger and maybe taller than us. We’re still savages fighting among ourselves, what’s out there are other creations either more peaceful or more rebellious and either of these, we’re no match for it.

Some people don’t believe in extraterrestrial life, why not?

The universe is big enough for all of us, and surely what is beyond our knowledge is far more real and powerful than what we’re aware of. We don’t need to go into other galaxies to search for life, our own has 200 to 400 billion of stars. Can you put a percentage on how many of these are such as ours? Let’s say 1%, that gives us 2-4 billion of possibilities where a developed form of life exists.

Next time you look at the skies, be sure that somewhere out there, another form of life is gazing at the same stars you’re looking at. We’re not alone, we share the same universe, the same questions, the same Creator.

If I were interested in the origin of men, among all the books available I would read this one, which is very interesting and surprising.

What about … #28

Who haven’t seen a portion or an entire rainbow when the sun shows up after a rainfall ? Sometimes we think that we can walk underneath it.  We start walking toward it without ever getting closer – which is quite disappointing. We may say that a rainbow is a beautiful mirage happening on wet conditions. No water, no rainbow.

So what is exactly this mirage? Actually the rain water droplets act like a prisms dispersing  the sunlight into its true colors. Newton was twenty-five when he discovered that the white light of the sun is in fact a mixture of light of different colors.

If light is a mixture of 7 colors which we’re unable to see with our own naked eyes, that means that all around us is a multicolored world with much more nuances than we’re accustomed to see. I believe that the universe might not be as dark as it seems after all.

We can produce black paint by mixing equal parts of red, yellow, and blue together, that’s interesting isn’t it ? What if the night’s sky hue is in fact the product of two or three different colors combined?

Let me explain: As we know, the universe is made of particles and waves – as we are. Some of these particles are well-known and some aren’t, well I propose since there is nothing which proves the contrary, that some of these unknown particles are what give the dark hue to the heavens.


What about … #7

We’re not quite alone in our Milky Way, we may think of ourselves as Aliens, we travel each day on our spaceship at about 721,000 km/h and 935,000 km/h depending on the day of the year as I have found in this website http://www.urban-astronomer.com/astronomy/how-fast-is-the-earth-travelling-through-space/ so between 17304000 km/day to 22440000 km/day around the Galaxy, that means that we won’t be in the same spot we were yesterday for ~250 million years, but we’re not lonely, we have stars all around us, to keep us company in this huge univers, and that’s  not all, our galaxy is traveling at about 1080000km/h so 25920000km/day.  It’s breathtaking isn’t it?

Now as we’re all aware, this isn’t the only galaxy around, we have a bunch them around, this are the closest ones:

# Galaxy Type Dist from Earth Magnitude Group


Notes Diameter (ly)
Mly Mpc M m
  1 Milky Way IR Spitzer.jpg Milky Way SBbc 0.027[2] 0.008[2] −20.8 [1] n/a Local Group Home galaxy of Earth 100,000-180,000 ly
  2 Canis Major Dwarf Irr (status as galaxy disputed) 0.025[3] 0.008 −14.5 23.3 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way(accretion by Milky Way) N/A
  3 S sgrdw1.jpg Sagittarius Dwarf SphrSagDEG dSph/E7 0.081 0.024[4] −12.67[4] 4.5[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way(partial accretion byMilky Way) 10,000 ly
  4 Ursa Major II Dwarf dSph 0.098 0.030 −4.2 14.3 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way(accretion by Milky Way) ~1,800 ly
  5 LH 95.jpg Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Irr/SB(s)m 0.163 0.050[4] −17.93[4] 0.9[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 14,00 ly
  6 Boötes I d Sph 0.197[5] 0.060 −5.8[6] 13.1 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
  7 Small magellanic cloud.jpg Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC, NGC 292) SB(s)m pec 0.206 0.063[4] −16.35[4] 2.7[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 7,000 ly
  8 Ursa Minor Dwarf dE4 0.206 0.063[4] −7.13[4] 11.9[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way
  9 PGC 60095 Draco Dwarf Hubble WikiSky.jpg Draco Dwarf(DDO 208) dE0 pec 0.258 0.079[4] −8.74[4] 10.9[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Waywith a large amount of dark matter ~2,700 x 1,900 ly
 10 NGC 2419 Hubble WikiSky.jpg NGC 2419 Glob Clus 0.275 0.084 −9.5/−11 ? 9.06 Brightest remote MW globular cluster 520 ly
 11 Sextans Dwarf Sph dSph 0.281 0.086[4] −7.98[4] 12[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 8,400 ly
 12 Sculptor Dwarf Galaxy ESO.jpg Sculptor Dwarf(E351-G30) dE3 0.287 0.088[4] −9.77[4] 10.1[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 13 Ursa Major I Dwarf (UMa I dSph) dSph 0.330 0.10[7] −6.75[7] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way A few thousand ly
 14 Carina Dwarf Galaxy.jpg Carina Dwarf(E206-G220) dE3 0.330 0.10[4] −8.97[7] 11.3[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 1,600 ly
 15 Fornax Dwarf.jpg Fornax Dwarf(E356-G04) dSPh/E2 0.46 0.14[1] −11.5[4] 9.28[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 16 Leo II Dwarf(Leo B, DDO 93) dE0 pec 0.701[8] 0.215 −9.23[4] 12.45[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 4,100 ly (tidal)
 17 Ugc5470.jpg Leo I Dwarf(DDO 74, UGC 5470) dE3 0.820[8] 0.25 −10.97[4] 11.18[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 18 Leo T Dwarf G[5] 1.370 0.42[9] 16[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way? 2,300 ly
 19 Phoenix Dwarf Hubble WikiSky.jpg Phoenix Dwarf Galaxy (P 6830) IAm 1.44 0.44 −10.22[4] 13.07[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 20 NGC6822.jpg Barnard’s Galaxy (NGC 6822) IB(s)m IV-V 1.630[8] 0.50 −15.22[4] 9.32[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 7,000 ly
 21 MGC1[10] Glob Clus 2 0.615 −9.2 Local Group Isolated cluster at ~200 kpc from M31 N/A
 22 Ngc185.jpg NGC 185 dE3 pec 2.010 [11] 0.62 −14.76[4] 9.99[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 23 Andromeda II dE0 2.130 [11] 0.65 −9.33[4] 15.10[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 24 IC10 BVHa.jpg IC 10 (UGC 192) dIrr IV/BCD[5] 2.2 0.67 −15.57[4] 12.2[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 25 NGC147.jpg NGC 147 (DDO 3) dE5 pec 2.200[11] 0.68 −14.9[4] 10.36[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 26 Leo A Hubble WikiSky.jpg Leo A (Leo III, DDO 69) IBm V 2.250[8] 0.80[12] −11.68[12] 12.92 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 27 IC1613-3.jpg IC 1613 (UGC 668) IAB(s)m V 2.350[8] 0.72 −14.51[4] 9.92[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 28 Andromeda I Hubble WikiSky.jpg Andromeda I dE3 pec 2.430[11] 0.75 −10.87[4] 13.9[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 29 Andromeda III dE2 2.440[11] 0.75 −9.30[4] 15.20[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 30 Cetus Dwarf dSph/E4 2.460[11] 0.75 −10.18[4] 14.4[1] Local Group Satellite ofAndromeda[4] N/A
 31 Hs-1999-40-a-full jpg.jpg M32 (NGC 221) E2 2.480;[8] 0.76 −15.96[4] 8.73[1] Local Group Close Satellite ofAndromeda 6,500 ly
 32 Cassiopeia Dwarf (PGC 2807155) Hubble WikiSky.jpg Cassiopeia Dwarf (Cas dSph,Andromeda VII) dSph 2.490[11] 0.76 −11.67[4] 13.65[1] Local Group Satellite ofAndromeda[4] N/A
 33 Andromeda IX dE 2.500[11] 0.77 −7.5[4] Local Group Satellite ofAndromeda[4] N/A
 34 LGS 3 ubv.jpg LGS 3 dIrr/dSph 2.510[11] 0.77 −7.96[4] 16.18[1] Local Group Satellite ofTriangulum[citation needed] N/A
 35 Andromeda V dSph 2.52[11] 0.77 −8.41[4] 16.67[1] Local Group Satellite ofAndromeda[4] N/A
 36 Pegasus dSph.gif Pegasus Dwarf Sph (And VI) dSph 2.55[11] 0.78 −10.80[4] 14.05[1] Local Group Satellite ofAndromeda[4] N/A
 37 Andromeda VIII dSph[13] 2.7 0.828 −15.6 9.1 Local Group Tidally distorted dwarf close to Andromedadiscovered 2003[13] N/A
 — Andromeda Galaxy (with h-alpha).jpg Andromeda Galaxy (M31) SA(s)b 2.56[11] 0.79 −21.58[4] 4.17[1] Local Group Largest Galaxy in the Local Group, with at least 19 satellite galaxies 220,000 ly
 38 M33.jpg Triangulum Galaxy (M33) SAc 2.64 [11] 0.81 −18.87[4] 6.19[1] Local Group Most distant (difficult) naked eye object 60,000 l

Two of these will collide with the Milky Way, M31 and M33 which their real name is Andromeda and Triangulum. 

Milky Way and Andromeda are traveling toward each other at 400 000 km/h, so unfortunately we need 4 billion years for them to collide. But really it will be a splendid view!

Maybe we’ll be able to see them from heaven?  Hope so.

What about… #1

There are powerful things in the universe, far away from us, which exist for a reason. One of those beings are Black Holes. 

We all heard about those strange, terrific, black, absorbing entities, but are they real? Are they what they seem to be?

First thing first, what’s a black hole: When a supergiant stars (O type) dies, they explode into supernovas and then colapse over themselves and turn into a black hole or neutron stars. The density of this one is so dense that nothing can escape its attraction. The Suns that end likewise have between 15 and 90 times the mass of the Sun and they are between 30,000 and 1,000,000 times as luminous as the Sun.

The black holes act like whirepools, they pull everything within their reach such as planets, suns, satellites… and particles such as light. That’s why they cannot be seen, we need High Tech telescopes to detect light diffraction which help us notice that something huge is in the way.

Some theories say that black holes aren’t as we believe them to be. They’re not holes, and  they’re different from what we imagine, because we’ve never seen one. But what difference does it make, either a hole or not. The amount of gravity the hole exerts is so powerful that nothing absorbed remains as it is.

Let me explain: there is something called The Event Horizon, whatever crosses that line is doomed to be shattered, exploded, annelid before reaching the entity itself. The object inside the horizon zone is streched to the point that a ball will look like a drop (see sketch #12) nothing comes out of the horizon zone, its fate is sealed.

The light curves arriving at that limit so that the image (light) of a star will become two, in different directions.

These monsters are what keep the expansion of the universe as it is, not too fast, nor too slow (thank God).

There are a few in our Galaxy among which one is at its center, in the constelation of Sagittarius, called Sagittarius A, it’s a supermassive one, probably to keep the Milky Way in shape. There is nothing to worry about;  it is way too far to have a direct effect on our solar system.

The bottom line is that, we’re not able to know exactly what these black holes are. Some believe they may be a way to another universe, while others believe they are a way to the future or to the past…

Whatever the answer is, Black Holes are mysteries among mysteries