What about … #36

We wouldn’t be able to live without the main source of light which is the sun. When we think about it, it is more vital than any other thing around us. Without it we wouldn’t have food, water, heat or even vitamin D. Thank God that we’re on a planet not too close nor too far from this special star.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process. It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System.
The thing is that stars aren’t all equal some of them are bigger but short-lived, some are smaller but live a very long life.

DWARF STARS “K and M type”
Dwarf stars are relatively small stars, up to 20 times larger than our sun and up to 20,000 times brighter.

Yellow dwarfs are small, main sequence stars. The Sun is a yellow dwarf.

RED DWARF “F type”
A red dwarf is a small, cool, very faint, main sequence star whose surface temperature is under about 4,000 K. Red dwarfs are the most common type of star. Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf.

RED GIANT “A type”
A red giant is a relatively old star whose diameter is about 100 times bigger than it was originally, and had become cooler (the surface temperature is under 6,500 K). They are frequently orange in color. Betelgeuse is a red giant. It is about 20 times as massive as the Sun about 14,000 times brighter than the Sun, and about 600 light-years from Earth.

A blue giant is a huge, very hot, blue star. It is a post-main sequence star that burns helium.

A supergiant is the largest known type of star; some are almost as large as our entire solar system. Betelgeuse and Rigel are supergiants. These stars are rare. When supergiants die they supernova and become black holes.

The difference between these stars are their size, temperature, mass, luminosity and radius. In about 4-6 billion years our star will turn into a red giant in its final stage. So the next time when we think that it’s a really hot day, we might think twice before saying it.

What about …. #32

Light or no light; this is the question.

We’re all fascinated by those splendid starry nights, where we see ourselves as small insignificant beings looking at a vast realm of wonders. We’re aware that those shinning white dots are painted on a black background, and that is what this is all about. I’ve been wondering about the darkness of space since I can remember.  I always thought that space was dark because that was its colour, space was THE black colour. Filled with different types of electromagnetic radiation which gives us about 97% to 3% of matter. But I’ve learned lately thanks to Joseph through the RTU blog that our eyes may deceive us sometimes. As I’ve written in a previous post called “Can we catch rainbows ”, “Pure white light” or that which comes from our Sun can be split into a continuous spectrum of frequencies that range from the shortwave ultraviolet to the near infra red longer wavelengths. Our human eye can distinguish around 10 million different such frequencies, not just 7. Seven has become a common misconception adopted as reality simply for most humans convenience. We can make black colour by mixing yellow, bleu and red, even though it’s never totally black.  To make things worse, black is the colour of an object which absorbs all of the colours of visible light, for which we can  assume to be the same as no light.

Our brain shows us what our eyes detect; they are light receptors. So when there is no light, there is nothing to be received, therefore we don’t see anything. Such as when we turn off the lights and we stand in a pitch “black” room. The room hasn’t turned black when the lights went off, it’s our brain that perceived the darkness as if it was  blackness.  We may still touch the chair or the table but we’re not able to see them. The universe uses the same mechanism with a slightly difference. The universe is only dark in the sense that it is devoid of radiation that can be detected by the human eye; if it is dark to the human, it does not make it devoid of electromagnetic radiation.

Now, to answer the main question, is space dark or black ?

It is dark. Because we perceive what has no light, black. If we take a region of space full of stars, we would notice that space is filled with light and colours. Space is a place of wonders, with which we would never be fully acquainted.

But in the reality, is space really dark? If we could travel to the end of the universe, would we see a different horizon? Or is darkness/nothingness an illusion perceived only by the human eye?

What about… #29 

Today’s post isn’t really about books, but I have to start by speaking about one that I’ve just finished. The latest novel by Dan Brown; Origin.

I have to say that I was a little disappointed. The book’s topic (about which I’ll speak further) isn’t the problem but having read all of his novels, I find this one a remake of Inferno or The Da Vinci Code or even The Lost Symbol. Robert Langdon; which is the main Charater of most of Brown’s stories, fleeing a danger with a women to try to resolve an enigma.

Usually there is something innovative which makes every book a new story, such as in “Inferno” Robert Langdon, lost his memory and was shot. In “The Da Vinci Code” everything was unexpected. In “The Lost Symbol” Robert Langdon was unexpectedly called to a meeting place to find just a severed hand waiting for him. But this one looks like a bit of every past books, Robert Langdon is in the same kind of trouble he was in every other book! Nothing unexpected.

What I DID like about this book is that it speaks a lot about art, history and science.

Now the main topic of this book is the Origin of men and its future. An atheist scientist called Kirsch made a phenomenal dicovery which cost him his life before he can share it with the world. Robert Langdon and a woman called Vidal must do the impossible to broadcast the discovery even though they are threatened to be killed by someone who wishes to stop them spreading the news, that the creation can exist without a God.

Kirsch as a believer in the Darwinian theory (but not entirely satisfied as Darwin didn’t explain how life arrived on earth in the first place) made his own reasearch.

The idea is that Life can create itself with the right ingredients and conditions; it’s a paradox when we’re aware that the univese is a world of Entropy or should we say Chaos. Let me give you some details:

We build a castle of sand by the sea, when a wave hits the castle it disorganize the sand castle into scattered grains: no more castle.

Things are irreversible, when you put a hot mug of coffee on the table, it gets cold. The coffee never magically reheat itself.

Entropy is just a fancy way of saying that things fall apart. An organized system, inevitably deteriorates. Sand castles never spontaneously appear in the universe, they only disappear.

So Kirsch enhanced a technique used in 1953 by two scientists Muller & Urey who tried to recreate the Primordial Soup, trying to create life within a flask of non living chemicals.

Chemists after them tried repeatedly using different combination of ingredients, different heath patterns but nothing worked.

But what is a Premordial Soup? After duplicating the chemicals that existed in the early oceans and atmosphere – water, methane, ammonia, and hydrogen – Muller and Urey heated all of this to simulate the boiling seas. Then they shocked it with electric charges to mimic lightning and they finally let the mixture cool just as the planet’s oceans had cooled. Of course that didn’t work. So in addition to this, Kirsch added electromagnetism to a 64 year old flask belonging to Muller and Urey and that’s it; he created Primitive organism.

According to him the Premordial Soup needed electromagnetism to put chaos in order, to create life. Therefore, if life simply happened as an inevitable by product of the laws of nature we have to conclude that because life spontaneously appeared here on earth, it almost certainly did the same thing elsewhere in the cosmos. Meaning man is not unique and man is not alone in the universe.

My first reaction was the same as Robert’s in the book: if the laws of nature can actually create life, then who created the laws?

We don’t need life to happen by product of the laws to believe that other lives exists in the cosmos. Who didn’t wonder what’s up there, gazing at the night’s sky?

Those billions of stars and what’s in between, hold such mysteries that we’re unable to provide all the answers needed to cease to be amazed at what we look at. The sky (universe) is an unfriendly place for any earthly living creature, and the “luck” as some atheists would say, has put us in the perfect planet that sustains life in all sense. But of course among the multitude of different stars, it is unthinkable that we’re the only living beings in such a vast creation. What’s out there is so far that we’re not (yet) able to reach out for them. After all…. after seeing all those Alien movies saying that they are monsters wanting to destroy us in any possible way….. I’m not sure that they are so far from us for no reason. In reality, I believe that we have our own issues here, for land, for beliefs, for ethnicity… can you imagine if we had Aliens as well to negotiate with? We’re not mature enough to handle something smarter, stronger and maybe taller than us. We’re still savages fighting among ourselves, what’s out there are other creations either more peaceful or more rebellious and either of these, we’re no match for it.

Some people don’t believe in extraterrestrial life, why not?

The universe is big enough for all of us, and surely what is beyond our knowledge is far more real and powerful than what we’re aware of. We don’t need to go into other galaxies to search for life, our own has 200 to 400 billion of stars. Can you put a percentage on how many of these are such as ours? Let’s say 1%, that gives us 2-4 billion of possibilities where a developed form of life exists.

Next time you look at the skies, be sure that somewhere out there, another form of life is gazing at the same stars you’re looking at. We’re not alone, we share the same universe, the same questions, the same Creator.

If I were interested in the origin of men, among all the books available I would read this one, which is very interesting and surprising.

What about … #26

What intelligent being, what being capable of responding emotionally to a beautiful sight, can look at the jagged, silvery lunar crescent trembling in the azure sky, even through the weakest of telescopes, and not be struck by it in an intensely peasurable way, not feel cut off from everyday life here on Earth and transported toward that first stop on celestial journeys? What thoughtful soul look at brilliant Jupiter with its four attendant satellites, or splendid Saturn encircled by its mysterious ring, or a double star glowing scarlet and sapphire in the infinity of night, and not be filled with a sense of wonder? Yes, indeed, if humankind – from humble farmers in the fields and toilong workers in the cities to teachers, people of independent means, those who have reached th pinnacle of fame or fortune, even the most frivolous of society of women – if they knew what profound inner pleasure awaits those who gaze at the heavens, then France, nay, the whole of europe, would be covered with telescopes instead of bayonets, thereby promoting universal happiness and peace.

Camille Flammarion, 1880

French astromomer

What about…. #11

Sirius is a double system star. That is, there is a Sirius A and B, revolving around each other at an average distance of 20 AU roughly the distance between the sun and Saturn.

Sirius B is a white dwarf which cannot be seen without a telescope, while Sirius A is the brightest star in the night’s sky.

Even though it’s the third closest star from our solar system (8 ly), Sirius is the brightest by its size (~4 times the sun) and mass (twice the sun).

Sirius will get closer in the next 200 000 years, but then it will start to step away from us and become as bright as any other star. Its life span is about 1 billion years, as it came to life 200 000 years ago, it has only ~ 3/4 of life remaining.

It can easily be seen in winter, it’s in the Canis Major constellation next to the famous Orion’s.

If you have the chance to see it, well you’d better to ’cause it won’t stay forever…. 😉

What about… #1

There are powerful things in the universe, far away from us, which exist for a reason. One of those beings are Black Holes. 

We all heard about those strange, terrific, black, absorbing entities, but are they real? Are they what they seem to be?

First thing first, what’s a black hole: When a supergiant stars (O type) dies, they explode into supernovas and then colapse over themselves and turn into a black hole or neutron stars. The density of this one is so dense that nothing can escape its attraction. The Suns that end likewise have between 15 and 90 times the mass of the Sun and they are between 30,000 and 1,000,000 times as luminous as the Sun.

The black holes act like whirepools, they pull everything within their reach such as planets, suns, satellites… and particles such as light. That’s why they cannot be seen, we need High Tech telescopes to detect light diffraction which help us notice that something huge is in the way.

Some theories say that black holes aren’t as we believe them to be. They’re not holes, and  they’re different from what we imagine, because we’ve never seen one. But what difference does it make, either a hole or not. The amount of gravity the hole exerts is so powerful that nothing absorbed remains as it is.

Let me explain: there is something called The Event Horizon, whatever crosses that line is doomed to be shattered, exploded, annelid before reaching the entity itself. The object inside the horizon zone is streched to the point that a ball will look like a drop (see sketch #12) nothing comes out of the horizon zone, its fate is sealed.

The light curves arriving at that limit so that the image (light) of a star will become two, in different directions.

These monsters are what keep the expansion of the universe as it is, not too fast, nor too slow (thank God).

There are a few in our Galaxy among which one is at its center, in the constelation of Sagittarius, called Sagittarius A, it’s a supermassive one, probably to keep the Milky Way in shape. There is nothing to worry about;  it is way too far to have a direct effect on our solar system.

The bottom line is that, we’re not able to know exactly what these black holes are. Some believe they may be a way to another universe, while others believe they are a way to the future or to the past…

Whatever the answer is, Black Holes are mysteries among mysteries

The Theory of Fate – Update

Not many believe in the Day of Judgment. Of course not! We’re in the 21th century, we’re so sophisticated that we prefer to believe in what we have proof or in what we think make sense. “The story of ancient times” are too old for us to think about or to still believe in.

Wrong! The Holy Scriptures are never too old. All of them warn us about that Day where we’ll be judged for our deeds. Those who believe in this Event are divided in two groups, those who believe that we’ll attain the judgment with our bodies and those who believe that it will be with our souls only.

In my opinion, souls are not made of matter, hence they shouldn’t fear to be punished as nothing can harm them, they’re spirits after all.

Bodies are made of matter, they can feel the pain or the joys, so they can be rewarded or punished.
I am of those who believe that we’ll attain the judgment with our bodies.

If you’ve read this far, it means that you’re interested. Good! So now comes the interesting part.

You may have previously read my book The Theory of Fate where I’ve given detailed explanations on what the Holy Scriptures say about that Day, in accordance with what science says. And you probably remember that Volcanoes will be the source of the Apocalypse and the Day of Judgment.

Well, I have a little update to the book, which you won’t find in it because it takes a long time to edit and upload again. I preferred to add it here.
I’ve been reading randomly one of the Holy Scriptures; the Quran. And I’ve noticed something that I haven’t seen before. These verses:

28. Woe on that Day to the deniers.
29. “Proceed to what you used to deny.”
30. “Proceed to a shadow of three columns.”
31. Offering no shade, and unavailing against the flames.
32. It shoots sparks as castles.
33. As if they were bundles of rope (or “bright yellow cooper”).
34. Woe on that Day to the falsifiers.
35. This is a Day when they will not speak.
36. And they will not be allowed to apologize.
37. Woe on that Day to the rejecters.
38. This is the Day of Separation; We have gathered you, together with the ancients.

This sentence “Proceed to a shadow of three columns.” is the answer to a question I’ve mentioned in the book; how many Super Volcanoes will be active on the Day of Judgment. The answer is: three, simple as that.

But where exacly will they be?

The hotspots are the tunnels from where the magma gets out. As the Earth’s crust is in constant move, every few millions of years the hotspots change places. For instance, the Yellowstone which is in Wyoming, will be in the Pacific Ocean.

This is the picture of Pangea Ultima (the next super continent) I’ve found online.

These are the current super volcanoes location

If we locate all the super volcanoes on this map, they will be about here:

Three of these will be enough in the Day of Judgment.

But how many will there be for the End of The World?

Only God knows when the Apocalypse will be upon us. So let’s not forget what awaits us, because when that day comes, there is no coming back.

If you want to know more about what the Holy Scriptures and Science say about the Apocalypse, you can buy the book here.

The Theory of Fate – Chapter 5/part 9

It will be only a single decree
The day when the horn will be blown and we shall gather them together while they will have turned blue on that day and will be whispering among themselves: you did not remain (in the graves) more than ten (days).

And (remember) the day when the heaven shall be rent asunder with clouds, and the angels shall be sent down, with a grand descending.

And when the trumpet is sounded, that day it will be a distressful day

And listen, the day when the caller will call from a place nearby

Surely the day of decision is an appointed time a day when the trumpet will be blown, and you will come in large groups and the heaven shall be opened, and it will become as gates and the mountains shall be moved away from their places and they will be as if they were a mirage

They wait only but a single shout which will size them while they are disputing then they will not be able to make bequest nor they will return to their family and the trumpet will be blown (2nd blow) and behold from the Graves they will come out quickly to their Lord

How will you do then, if you disbelieve, guard yourselves against a day which will turn the children’s hair grey
When the order will come the horn will be blown,  but the thing is that at first I thought that this loud sound would come from the supervolcano but a lot worst than the Krakatoe volcano did. But then I changed my mind when I read this verse And listen, the day when the caller will call from a place nearby. This verse is speaking of a creature who calls. It will be such a loud sound that it will be able to kill all of us instantly they will not be able to make bequest nor they will return to their family. Actually it is normal that a really loud sound kills someone:

Can sound kill you? The short answer is “yes” — and, rather shockingly, the European Space Agency says that it now has such a sonic weapon in its arsenal that, if it was so inclined, could kill you. For the long answer, read on.

The question is, is 154 decibels enough to kill you? In all honesty, probably not — unless, perhaps, you were stuck with your head inside the horn for a prolonged period. 150 decibels is usually considered enough to burst your eardrums, but the threshold for death is usually pegged at around 185-200 dB. A passenger car driving by at 25 feet is about 60 dB, being next to a jackhammer or lawn mower is around 100 dB, a nearby chainsaw is 120 dB. Generally, 150 dB (eardrum rupture) is only achieved if you stand really close to a jet aircraft during take-off or you’re near an explosive blast.

 If you actually wanted to intentionally kill someone with a sonic weapon, there isn’t a whole lot of research on how you would actually go about doing it. The general consensus is that a loud enough sound could cause an air embolism in your lungs, which then travels to your heart and kills you. Alternatively, your lungs might simply burst from the increased air pressure. (Acoustic energy is just waves of varying sound pressure; the higher the energy, the higher the pressure, the louder the sound.) In some cases, where there’s some kind of underlying physical weakness, loud sounds might cause a seizure or heart attack — but there’s very little evidence to suggest this.

 Perhaps more significantly, though, it’s important to note that a sonic weapon doesn’t have to be lethal or incredibly loud to be effective. High-intensity ultrasonic sound (generally anything above 20KHz) can cause physical damage. Some very low frequencies (infrasound) can apparently cause your eyeballs to vibrate, making it very hard to see. Targeted “sonic bullets” that cause localized pain (or simply burst your eardrums) is probably enough to immobilize most non-action-hero humans.

 When the heaven shall be opened and becomes as gates, that’s not something we can see with our present eyes. There are two things which might turn the childrens’s hair grey. Either the sun’s Uv’s or the volcanes ashes. 


Tomorrow as you might know is “Around a cup Of Tea” but there will also be the Conclusion of The Theory Of Fate

The Theory of Fate – Chapter 3/part 1

​”Light will disappear from the stars in the sky; the dawning sun will turn dark, and the moon will lose its glow. “

Many verses speak of the darkening sun and the light less moon and the disappearing stars in the sky, but is that the real understanding? 

Our sun is 4.5 billion years old and he’s not ready to die yet, he still have a long life to live. He will grow brighter and brighter in the next billion years till he won’t have any more hydrogen to burn. In the meantime 10% increase in the sun’s brightness in the next billion year, will mark the beginning of the evaporation of our oceans. As the oceans evaporate, more and more water will be present in the atmosphere, this will act as a greenhouse gas, trapping even more heat and causing more and more of the oceans to evaporate, until the ground is mostly dry and the atmosphere holds the water, but at an extremely high temperature. So it seems likely that we have no more than a billion years left for life to thrive on our planet. About 7.6 billion years from now, the sun will reach its maximum size as a red giant: its surface will extend beyond Earth’s orbit today by 20 percent and will shine 3,000 times brighter. In its final stage, he would be 256 times bigger than he is now before collapsing into a white dwarf. 

 Stars are born and die every day in our galaxy while their light reaches us long after their present state. So most of the stars we see today won’t exist anymore by the time our sun turns into a red giant. If we look toward the galactic bulge we’ll see a whole area of newly formed stars, that’s why it’s so bright. Now if we turn toward the other side it won’t be as much because all of them are old. 

We take knowledge of our satellite since our childhood, we know how it orbits earth, and we know how eclipses are formed. Some are called solar eclipses and some lunar eclipses. Total solar eclipse forms when the moon comes between the sun and earth, total lunar eclipse happens when the Earth moves in between the Sun and the Moon. As we know the Moon does not have any light of its own – it shines because its surface reflects sunlight. During a total lunar eclipse, Earth moves between the Sun and the Moon and cuts off the Moon’s light supply. When this happens, the surface of the Moon takes on a reddish glow instead of going completely dark. The red color of a totally eclipsed Moon is referred as Blood Moons. So why the red color? It is due to the phenomenon called Rayleigh scattering. It is the same mechanism responsible for causing colorful sunrises and sunsets and the sky to look blue. We all know that even though sunlight may look white to human eyes, it is actually composed of different colors. These colors are visible through a prism or in a rainbow. Colors towards the red spectrum have longer wavelengths and lower frequencies compared to colors towards the violet spectrum which have shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies, it’s why the red color is more scattered than the blue at dawn and sunrise. You may also see sometimes a reddish moon at sundown for the same reason. 
“There was a great earthquake, and the sun became black as sackcloth, the full moon became like blood, and the stars of the sky fell to the earth as the fig tree sheds its winter fruit when shaken by a gale. The sky vanished like a scroll that is being rolled up, and every mountain and island was removed from its place.”

Earthquakes are measured by the Richter scale, each magnitude is a hundred times stronger than the previous one. An earthquake is the perceptible shaking of the surface of the Earth, which can be violent enough to destroy major buildings and kill thousands of people. The severity of the shaking can range from barely felt to violent enough to toss people around. Earthquakes (EQ) have destroyed whole cities. They result from the sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves.
EQ are measured using observations from seismometers. The largest in historic times have been of magnitude slightly over 9, although there is no limit to the possible magnitude, the strongest recorded in history was In 1960, Valdivia, Chile with a magnitude of 9.5. If there was one of magnitude 12 even though it doesn’t seems likely, it won’t be enough to remove every mountain on earth, because the EQ happens in one place with one epicenter that couldn’t affect the five continents neither their mountains which are strongly welded in the tectonic plates. 

We all know what stars are. A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity, and our sun is one of them. Other stars are visible from Earth during the night, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points in the sky due to their immense distance from Earth. Historically, the most prominent stars were grouped into constellations and asterisms, and the brightest stars gained proper names.
For at least a portion of its life, a star shines due to thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium in its core, releasing energy that traverses the star’s interior and then radiates into outer space. Stars are classified by their spectra (the elements that they absorb) and their temperature. There are seven main types of stars. In order of decreasing temperature, O, B, A, F, G, K, and M. 

O and B stars are uncommon but very bright; M stars are common but dim. so obviously we can’t believe that real stars will Fall on earth can we?

There’s another kind of “star”, the shooting star which scientifically is called meteoroid. A small rocky or metallic body travelling through space. Meteoroids are significantly smaller than asteroids, and range in size from small grains to 1 meter-wide objects. Objects smaller than this are classified as micrometeoroids or space dust. Most are fragments from comets or asteroids.

 When a meteoroid, comet or asteroid enters the Earth’s atmosphere at a speed typically in excess of 20 km/s (72,000 km/h), aerodynamic heating of that object produces a streak of light, both from the glowing object and the trail of glowing particles that it leaves in its wake. This phenomenon is called a meteor or “shooting star”. A series of many meteors appearing seconds or minutes apart, and appearing to originate from the same fixed point in the sky, is called a meteor shower. If that object withstands ablation from its passage through the atmosphere as a meteor and impacts with the ground, it is then called a meteorite.

 So it’s best to think that this verse speaks of shooting stars. 

It is difficult to imagine the sky rolling like a scroll, I thought at first that it might be the sky we see at night the Milky way which is a spiral galaxy, but it will never be possible for us to see it’s face – so to speak – because we’re on one of its arms. Then I thought of the end of the universe which have three theories: 

The first is a closed universe which will end by a big crunch. In a closed universe lacking the repulsive effect of dark energy, gravity eventually stops the expansion of the universe, after which it starts to contract until all matter in the universe collapses to a point, a final singularity termed the “Big Crunch”, the opposite of the Big Bang. So it wouldn’t roll anything. 

The second is the open universe even without dark energy, a negatively curved universe expands forever, with gravity negligibly slowing the rate of expansion. With dark energy, the expansion not only continues but accelerates. The ultimate fate of an open universe is either universal heat death, the “Big Freeze”, or the “Big Rip”, where the acceleration caused by dark energy eventually becomes so strong that it completely overwhelms the effects of the gravitational, electromagnetic and strong binding forces. Nothing to roll either.

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