What about … #38

Hello everyone, today I’ll do my best to explain the properties of consciousness – according to me.

This post is related to these pages

Seeing is Believing

Conscious thought and fuzzy reality
From which I’ll borrow some sentences.

I’ve read both of them several times to get a full understanding on the topic (I know, I’m not really smart).

To begin with, what it is to be conscious?

The state of being aware of and responsive to one’s surroundings.
Human beings and animals are among very few things which are responsive to one’s surroundings. We could say that automatic doors are responsive, car alarms as well, but we can’t call that consciousness can we? Sensors were built just to detect “anomalies”, while animals are responsive according to the degree of their intelligence, for instance you can’t pretend to find a bird saying to himself “No I won’t go near that cheese because it’s a mouse trap!” but you may see it in monkeys maybe.

Early ideas of consciousness can be traced very far back in history; it is a very human question to ponder. It is one that has troubled the minds of great thinkers for a very long time. Descartes was convinced that the human body and human consciousness were two separable items; the first a material body the second an immaterial item (if an item can indeed ever be immaterial).

Now for there first part to understand consciousness, we need to look into the non-observable domain. We’re aware that everything in the universe is made of electron, protons and neutrons but that’s not all, there are tinier things called quarks and even more tiny called bosons, unfortunately in science proof is very important, to call “it” a fact otherwise it will be just a theory.

Well, the most pertinent school of thought in philosophy of science is called Entity Realism. We cannot see quarks directly however what we can see is the effects they have on larger entities. The proponent of Entity Realism, Ian Hacking, reasons along these lines. He argues that we understand the properties of the electrons and even though we cannot see them we can change variables in the system to manipulate their behaviour in order to produce effects on larger observables which we can can see. Now this manipulation of the unobservable entities and their produced effects is though to be proof enough of their existence. As long as we can manipulate and intervene on scientific entities in a laboratory to create phenomena we expect, we are justified to believe in their existence as the causal entities at work in the observed effects.

That’s the problem why lots of scientists are atheists, if they can’t “manipulate” God or can’t see some proof of him, than he doesn’t exist. The answer lies here: We cannot see quarks directly however what we can see is the effects they have on larger entities.

Actually we can see the effects God has on small and large entities.

The Thunder 13 3-4

And it is He who spread the earth, and placed in it mountains and rivers. And He placed in it two kinds of every fruit. He causes the night to overlap the day. In that are signs for people who reflect. On earth are adjacent terrains, and gardens of vines, and crops, and date-palms, from the same root or from distinct roots, irrigated with the same water. We make some taste better than others. In that are proofs for people who reason.

The Bees 16 11-17

And He produces for you grains with it, and olives, and date-palms, and grapes, and all kinds of fruits. Surely in that is a sign for people who think. And He regulated for you the night and the day; and the sun, and the moon, and the stars are disposed by His command. Surely in that are signs for people who ponder.

And whatsoever He created for you on earth is of diverse colors. Surely in that is a sign for people who are mindful. And it is He who made the sea to serve you, that you may eat from it tender meat, and extract from it ornaments that you wear. And you see the ships plowing through it, as you seek His bounties, so that you may give thanks. And he cast mountains on the earth, lest it shifts with you; and rivers, and roads, so that you may be guided. And landmarks. And by the stars they guide themselves. Is He who creates like him who does not create? Will you not take a lesson?

The winds that scatter 51 20-25

And of His signs is that He created you from dust; and behold, you become humans spreading out. And of His signs is that He created for you mates from among yourselves, so that you may find tranquility in them; and He planted love and compassion between you. In this are signs for people who reflect. And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the diversity of your languages and colors. In this are signs for those who know. And of His signs are your sleep by night and day, and your pursuit of His bounty. In this are signs for people who listen. And of His signs is that He shows you the lightning, causing fear and hope. And He brings down water from the sky, and with it He revives the earth after it was dead. In this are signs for people who understand. And of His signs is that the heaven and the earth stand at His disposal. And then, when He calls you out of the earth, you will emerge at once.
The question is: why should the independent existence of objects rely on what we can see with our tiny eyeballs or what we can manipulate with our level of technology. If our technology so increases to be able to manipulate a quark, was the quark non-existent before? I think not. This reminds me of a similar philosophical line which equally gets on my grind ‘if a tree falls in a forest and no-one is around to hear it, does it still make a sound?’ Of course it does, unless you believe the laws of nature are entirely dependent upon the perception of a particular species living on one planet.

Now to get back on the topic, is there a specific location for consciousness ? Some people believe that it is stored in the brain “The consensus is that consciousness comes from the brain” but they haven’t found real evidence of it. Well someone I know thinks that it is a part of our soul (Personally I think that’s the best theory so far). I know that some people don’t believe in spirits or souls but fortunately most of us do. Each and everyone of us has a soul with which he lives till he dies, that is what the Bible says in :

Matthew 10:28

And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Rather fear him who can destroy both soul and body in hell.

Ecclesiastes 12:7

And the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the spirit returns to God who gave it.

Genesis 2:7

Then the Lord God formed the man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living creature.

And the Quran:

The Groups 39: 42

God takes the souls at the time of their death, and those that die not during their sleep; then He withholds those on whom He has passed the decree of death and sends the others back till an appointed term; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect.

The Prostration 32: 7-9

(It is He) Who made good everything that He has created, and He began the creation of man from dust. Then He made his progeny of an extract of water held in light estimation. Then He made him complete and breathed into him of His spirit, and made for you the ears and the eyes and the hearts; little is it that you give thanks.

The Journey by Night 17: 85

And they ask you about the soul. Say: The soul is one of the commands of my Lord, and you are not given aught of knowledge but a little.

I think that the best approach is to say that our soul has a connection with our brain in an unknown way. Descartes said that the human body and human consciousness were two separable items, and that is precisely the thing.

Suggesting that perhaps what is responsible for our consciousness is processes which take place within neurons themselves rather than the interactions between neurons which is the conventional view.
Suggesting that the soul has connections with the brain in the quantum level, that may be the case. Now the brain will continue to run for 10 to 20 seconds after death but it remains conscious for about 3 minutes
https://bioethics.georgetown.edu/2015/07/consciousness-after-clinical-death-the-biggest-ever-scientific-study-published/

eventually the activity will cease and the person will think no more; so what actually happens to it? If we are to take the approach that these things are stored via quantum mechanical processes then we must look to the idea that the information within the brain dissipates and is involved in irreversible reactions where it is lost from and the stored information is unwound into an unusable format

The fact that the brain remains conscious for 3 minutes makes me think that, that may be the time when we’ll be able to see our own life flashing before our eyes. Unfortunately we have very little knowledge about the soul but one thing for sure, the soul lives the body when the brain dies as well. That means that both are connected.

Some people asks themselves that if consciousness is in the quantum domain, are we real at all? aren’t we just a simulation?
That is a big question as well because some people believe that we’re not living our actual lives, this is just a memory. For example we’re already dead, we’re in our day of judgment and we’ve asked to be shown episodes of our lives for a reason or another – personally I don’t believe in this theory.

This author who has written lots of free downloadable scientific books, believe in it. According to him we could be living this life as if we were in a dream. Dreams are real when we’re dreaming them aren’t they? So for God, everything has already ended.

http://m.harunyahya.com/tr/works/993/Matter-The-Other-Name-for-Illusion/chapter/2218/Eternity-is-Hidden-in-Gods-Memory

Because time does not exist in the sight of God, all things happen in a single moment, that is in the “present”. All events which we think of as past and future are present to God; in His sight everything is much more clear and vital than we can perceive. For example, at this moment Jonah (pbuh) is being cast into the sea as a result of the drawing of lots. At this moment Mary is speaking with Gabriel; Jesus (pbuh) is being born. At this moment Noah (pbuh) is driving the first nail into the ark and leaving the ark with his family at the place God chose for them.

This is just an extract of a book called Matter The Other Name for Illusion.

If some people don’t believe in something which can’t be proved, it doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist. But God knows best.

What about … #37

Today I’ll try to explain what the dark energy and dark matter are in my opinion.
We all heard of the theory of relativity which is quite dithering.

There are two kinds of relativity, the first is the special and the second is the general.
The first one says:
1. That the speed of light is constant. It never changes, whichever speed you travel with the speed of light will be the same. For this to happen, time slows down for the one who is moving close to the speed of light. It has to be close to the speed of light or at least half the speed of light, otherwise you won’t notice a thing.

2. If somebody is travelling at a different speed or direction than you, they will disagree with you on whether certain events happened at the same time. For instance, if you’re standing on a moving staircase moving at 2 km/Ⓗ and someone is watching you standing still, this person will see you moving at 2 km/Ⓗ. Now if you start walking on this stairs, you’ll see yourself walking at 2 km/Ⓗ but this person who is watching you will conclude that you’re walking at 4 km/Ⓗ. In fact both of you are right, it is a question of relativity.

3. If something is moving very fast, it gets shorter in the direction that it is moving. If you take a ball hanged on a piece of rope, and you make it spin faster and faster you’ll notice your ball getting shrink a little in the direction it is spinning, but if it spins close to the speed of light you’ll see it shrink a lot.

Now in the general relativity we can speak of the twin paradox which had nothing to do with our topic but to give a breve description we may say that two people moving apart, the first at a normal speed and the second close to the speed of light, if they could see each other’s watch, they would see each other’s time slowing down even though only close to the speed of light that time slows down. So when this person who is traveling close to the speed of light decides to go back, he will find the other person much older than him.

Speeding Up and Slowing Down Are the Same Thing, for e.g when you take a cab you feel the acceleration when the taxi driver accelerate, you feel a “force” pushing you behind. When this driver slows down, you feel something pushing you forward. in fact this is called “inertia”: something which has mass shouldn’t be changing state – either in motion or still. This force which pushes you backwards when the cab driver accelerates is the same sensation as gravity. When he slows down, it is your seat belt which stops you from moving forward, but you still feel this gravity which pulls you. It’s the same thing if you find yourself floating in space and a spaceship accelerates beneath you, you’ll feel or see yourself falling into the spaceship and as soon as it reaches you, you’ll feel as if gravity was pulling you from beneath. This is a way to say that gravity and acceleration is the same thing. To make myself clear I’m not speaking about the famous Newton’s gravity ( the more mass an object has, the more gravity it produce), I’m speaking about the source of gravity as mentioned above when you were floating in space. Massive object floating through space, attracts space to itself, which we call curved space or curved space-time. As “time” never leaves “space” it is better to call it spacetime.
The spin of a heavy object, such as Earth, should twist and distort the space-time around it.
Now what all this has to do with dark energy and dark matter? Well it is complicated to describe but you see, the dark energy is what is expanding the universe, so this dark energy is the pillar which holds the universe from crumbling upon us. without it the universe would have crunched already. But what is wonderful is that it’s an invisible pillar. Can you imagine a big building with its walls, its doors, its windows and even its roof but with nothing visible to hold the roof? So this dark energy coming from nowhere – it’s better to say “are” – are the pillars of this spectacular huge sky which stands all around us.

Black holes is a region of space having a gravitational field so intense that no matter or radiation can escape. So black holes slow down the expansion, absorbing whatever comes by. It turns out that roughly 68% of the universe is dark energy. Dark matter makes up about 27%. The rest – everything on Earth, everything ever observed with all of our instruments, all normal matter – adds up to less than 5% of the universe.
We know that space is not a completely empty space, we can find particles mainly, hydrogen and helium, or even gravitational waves which are ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as waves at the speed of light, generated in certain gravitational interactions that propagate outward from their source, but I believe that space isn’t completely empty by no means. It is huge gravitational field.
Between the possibilities for the dark energy to be – a property of space, a new dynamic fluid, or a new theory of gravity – I would personally believe that it’s a property of space! It’s the pillar which holds and expands the heavens.

The dark matter is even more complicated, although it has not been directly observed, its existence and properties are inferred from its gravitational effects such as the motions of visible matter, gravitational lensing, its influence on the universe’s large-scale structure, and its effects in the cosmic microwave background. Dark matter is transparent to electromagnetic radiation it is so dense and small that it fails to absorb or emit enough radiation to be detectable with current imaging technology. Some galaxies are made of 99% of dark matter such as Dragonfly 44, an ultra diffuse galaxy with the mass of the Milky Way galaxy, but with nearly no discernable stars or galactic structure or even VIRGOHI21.

What about … #36

We wouldn’t be able to live without the main source of light which is the sun. When we think about it, it is more vital than any other thing around us. Without it we wouldn’t have food, water, heat or even vitamin D. Thank God that we’re on a planet not too close nor too far from this special star.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process. It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System.
The thing is that stars aren’t all equal some of them are bigger but short-lived, some are smaller but live a very long life.

DWARF STARS “K and M type”
Dwarf stars are relatively small stars, up to 20 times larger than our sun and up to 20,000 times brighter.

YELLOW DWARF “G type”
Yellow dwarfs are small, main sequence stars. The Sun is a yellow dwarf.

RED DWARF “F type”
A red dwarf is a small, cool, very faint, main sequence star whose surface temperature is under about 4,000 K. Red dwarfs are the most common type of star. Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf.

RED GIANT “A type”
A red giant is a relatively old star whose diameter is about 100 times bigger than it was originally, and had become cooler (the surface temperature is under 6,500 K). They are frequently orange in color. Betelgeuse is a red giant. It is about 20 times as massive as the Sun about 14,000 times brighter than the Sun, and about 600 light-years from Earth.

BLUE GIANT “B type”
A blue giant is a huge, very hot, blue star. It is a post-main sequence star that burns helium.

SUPERGIANT “O type”
A supergiant is the largest known type of star; some are almost as large as our entire solar system. Betelgeuse and Rigel are supergiants. These stars are rare. When supergiants die they supernova and become black holes.

The difference between these stars are their size, temperature, mass, luminosity and radius. In about 4-6 billion years our star will turn into a red giant in its final stage. So the next time when we think that it’s a really hot day, we might think twice before saying it.

What about … #35

We find in various Holy Scriptures verses that Earth and the sky have been created in 6 days, which is of course inconceivable. But if the Holy Scriptures say so, there must be a reason. The only way to find out is to look for proofs which is what we’ll be looking for today.

The Book of Genesis, which is the first book of the Bible, starts with the creation of the world. The Hebrew meaning of “Genesis” is the Book of Beginnings. This is because many new beginnings are recorded in Genesis. There are seven periods of creation recorded. Although each of these has been translated as a “day”, the Hebrew word is “yom” which simply means a period of time with a beginning and an ending. It is unlikely to be a solar day since the sun, moon and stars do not appear until the fourth “day”.

Genesis 1:1-31 & 2:1-3:

1 When God began to create[a] the heavens and the earth— 2 the earth was without shape or form, it was dark over the deep sea, and God’s wind swept over the waters— 3 God said, “Let there be light.” And so light appeared. 4 God saw how good the light was. God separated the light from the darkness. 5 God named the light Day and the darkness Night.

There was evening and there was morning: the first day.

6 God said, “Let there be a dome in the middle of the waters to separate the waters from each other.” 7 God made the dome and separated the waters under the dome from the waters above the dome. And it happened in that way. 8 God named the dome Sky.

There was evening and there was morning: the second day.

9 God said, “Let the waters under the sky come together into one place so that the dry land can appear.” And that’s what happened. 10 God named the dry land Earth, and he named the gathered waters Seas. God saw how good it was. 11 God said, “Let the earth grow plant life: plants yielding seeds and fruit trees bearing fruit with seeds inside it, each according to its kind throughout the earth.” And that’s what happened. 12 The earth produced plant life: plants yielding seeds, each according to its kind, and trees bearing fruit with seeds inside it, each according to its kind. God saw how good it was.

13 There was evening and there was morning: the third day.

14 God said, “Let there be lights in the dome of the sky to separate the day from the night. They will mark events, sacred seasons, days, and years. 15 They will be lights in the dome of the sky to shine on the earth.” And that’s what happened. 16 God made the stars and two great lights: the larger light to rule over the day and the smaller light to rule over the night. 17 God put them in the dome of the sky to shine on the earth, 18 to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. God saw how good it was.

19 There was evening and there was morning: the fourth day.

20 God said, “Let the waters swarm with living things, and let birds fly above the earth up in the dome of the sky.” 21 God created the great sea animals and all the tiny living things that swarm in the waters, each according to its kind, and all the winged birds, each according to its kind. God saw how good it was. 22 Then God blessed them: “Be fertile and multiply and fill the waters in the seas, and let the birds multiply on the earth.”

23 There was evening and there was morning: the fifth day.

24 God said, “Let the earth produce every kind of living thing: livestock, crawling things, and wildlife.” And that’s what happened. 25 God made every kind of wildlife, every kind of livestock, and every kind of creature that crawls on the ground. God saw how good it was. 26 Then God said, “Let us make humanity in our image to resemble us so that they may take charge of the fish of the sea, the birds in the sky, the livestock, all the earth, and all the crawling things on earth.”

27 God created humanity in God’s own image, in the divine image God created them,[b] male and female God created them.
28 God blessed them and said to them, “Be fertile and multiply; fill the earth and master it. Take charge of the fish of the sea, the birds in the sky, and everything crawling on the ground.” 29 Then God said, “I now give to you all the plants on the earth that yield seeds and all the trees whose fruit produces its seeds within it. These will be your food. 30 To all wildlife, to all the birds in the sky, and to everything crawling on the ground—to everything that breathes—I give all the green grasses for food.” And that’s what happened. 31 God saw everything he had made: it was supremely good.

There was evening and there was morning: the sixth day.

2 The heavens and the earth and all who live in them were completed. 2 On the sixth [a] day God completed all the work that he had done, and on the seventh day God rested from all the work that he had done. 3 God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it God rested from all the work of creation.[b] 4 This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created.

Exodus 20:11 — For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day.

In the Quran:

7.54 Your Lord is God; He who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then established Himself on the Throne. The night overtakes the day, as it pursues it persistently; and the sun, and the moon, and the stars are subservient by His command. His is the creation, and His is the command. Blessed is God, Lord of all beings.

10.3 Your Lord is God, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then settled over the Throne, governing all things. There is no intercessor except after His permission. Such is God, your Lord—so serve Him. Will you not reflect?

11.7 It is He who created the heavens and the earth in six days—and His Throne was upon the waters—in order to test you—which of you is best in conduct. And if you were to say, “You will be resurrected after death,” those who disbelieve would say, “This is nothing but plain witchcraft.”

25.59 He who created the heavens and the earth and everything between them in six days, then settled on the Throne. The Most Merciful. Ask about Him a well-informed.

32.4 God is He who created the heavens and the earth and everything between them in six days, and then established Himself on the Throne. Apart from Him, you have no master and no intercessor. Will you not reflect?

41.9-12 Say, “Do you reject the One who created the earth in two days? And you attribute equals to Him? That is the Lord of the Universe.”
He placed mountains over it; and blessed it; and planned its provisions in four days equal, for all those who ask.
Then He turned to the sky, and it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth, “Come, willingly or unwillingly.” They said, “We come willingly.”
So He completed them as seven heavens in two days, and He assigned to each heaven its affair. And We decorated the lower heaven with lamps (stars), and for protection. That is the design of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.

50.38 We created the heavens and the earth and what is between them in six days, and no fatigue touched Us.

57.4 It is He who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then settled over the Throne. He knows what penetrates into the earth, and what comes out of it, and what descends from the sky, and what ascends to it. And He is with you wherever you may be. God is Seeing of everything you do.

The Arabic word for “day” is “youm” which simply means a period of time as well. Now, it is clear that the word day doesn’t mean actually 24h. If we’re searching for the amount of time which this day is about, we need to search it in Earth’s history.

Geologists divided Earth’s history in period of time called either Eons, Era, Age….
So here is a small description of periods in million years. which are called Eon:

Hadean 4,540–4,000 The Earth is formed out of debris around the solar protoplanetary disk. There is no life. Temperatures are extremely hot, with frequent volcanic activity and hellish environments. The atmosphere is nebular. Possible early oceans or bodies of liquid water. The moon is formed around this time, probably due to a protoplanet’s collision into Earth.

Archean 4,000–2,500 Prokaryote life, the first form of life, emerges at the very beginning of this eon, in a process known as abiogenesis. The continents of Ur, Vaalbara and Kenorland may have been formed around this time. The atmosphere is composed of volcanic and greenhouse gases.

Proterozoic 2,500–541 Eukaryotes, a more complex form of life, emerge, including some forms of multicellular organisms. Bacteria began producing oxygen, shaping the third and current of Earth’s atmospheres. Plants, later animals and possibly earlier forms of fungi form around this time. The early and late phases of this eon may have undergone “Snowball Earth” periods, in which all of the planet suffered below-zero temperatures. The early continents of Columbia, Rodinia and Pannotia may have formed around this time, in that order.

Phanerozoic 541–present Complex life, including vertebrates, began to dominate the Earth’s ocean in a process known as the Cambrian explosion. Pangaea forms and later dissolves into Laurasia and Gondwana. Gradually, life expanded to land and all familiar forms of plants, animals and fungi began appearing, including annelids, insects and reptiles. Several mass extinctions occur, among which birds, the descendants of dinosaurs, and more recently mammals emerge. The rise and evolution of the human species occur at the very recent phases of this eon.

The Archean Eon 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years), is one of the two most important Eon for our reasearch. During the Archean, the Earth’s crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents.

The Archean atmosphere is thought to have nearly lacked free oxygen. Astronomers think that the Sun had about 70–75 percent of the present luminosity, yet temperatures on Earth appear to have been near modern levels after only 500 Ma of Earth’s formation. The presence of liquid water is evidenced by certain highly deformed gneisses produced by metamorphism of sedimentary protoliths. The moderate temperatures may reflect the presence of greater amounts of greenhouse gases than later in the Earth’s history.

By the end of the Archaean c. 2500 Ma (million years ago), plate tectonic activity may have been similar to that of the modern Earth. There are well-preserved sedimentary basins, and evidence of volcanic arcs, intracontinental rifts, continent-continent collisions and widespread globe-spanning orogenic events suggesting the assembly and destruction of one and perhaps several supercontinents. Liquid water was prevalent, and deep oceanic basins are known to have existed attested by the presence of banded iron formations, chert beds, chemical sediments and pillow basalts.

The Proterozoic extended from 2500 Ma to 541 Ma (million years ago), is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth. It is subdivided into three geologic eras (from oldest to youngest): the Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, and Neoproterozoic.

The well-identified events of this eon were the transition to an oxygenated atmosphere during the Paleoproterozoic; several glaciations, which produced the hypothesized Snowball Earth during the Cryogenian Period in the late Neoproterozoic Era; and the Ediacaran Period (635 to 541 Ma) which is characterized by the evolution of abundant soft-bodied multicellular organisms and provides us with the first obvious fossil evidence of life on earth.

The Proterozoic Eon was a very tectonically active period in the Earth’s history. The late Archean Eon to Early Proterozoic Eon corresponds to a period of increasing crustal recycling, suggesting subduction. It is believed that 43% of modern continental crust was formed in the Proterozoic, 39% formed in the Archean, and only 18% in the Phanerozoic.

During the Paleoproterozoic era the earliest global-scale continent-continent collisional belts developed.
These continent and mountain building events are represented by the 2.1–2.0 Ga Transamazonian and Eburnean Orogens in South America and West Africa; the ~2.0 Ga Limpopo Belt in southern Africa; the 1.9–1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson, Penokean, Taltson–Thelon, Wopmay, Ungava and Torngat orogens in North America, the 1.9–1.8 Ga Nagssugtoqidain Orogen in Greenland; the 1.9–1.8 Ga Kola–Karelia, Svecofennian, Volhyn-Central Russian, and Pachelma Orogens in Baltica (Eastern Europe); the 1.9–1.8 Ga Akitkan Orogen in Siberia; the ~1.95 Ga Khondalite Belt and ~1.85 Ga Trans-North China Orogen in North China.
These continental collisional belts are interpreted as having resulted from 2.0–1.8 Ga global-scale collisional events that led to the assembly of a Paleo-Mesoproterozoic supercontinent named Columbia or Nuna.

The Mesoproterozoic Era is a geologic era that occurred from 1,600 to 1,000 million years ago. The Mesoproterozoic was the first period of Earth’s history of which a respectable geological record survives. Continents existed in the Paleoproterozoic, but we know little about them. It is noteworthy that the continental masses of the Mesoproterozoic are more or less the same ones that are with us today.
It was an Era of apparently critical, but still poorly understood, changes in the chemistry of the sea, the sediments of the earth, and the composition of the air. Oxygen levels had risen to perhaps 1% of today’s levels at the beginning of the era and continued rising throughout the Era.

I would recommend to read more about these periods on Wikipedia for more details.

The first atmosphere would have consisted of gases in the solar nebula, primarily hydrogen. In addition, there would probably have been simple hydrides such as those now found in the gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn), notably water vapor, methane and ammonia. As the solar nebula dissipated, these gases would have escaped, partly driven off by the solar wind.

The second atmosphere, outgassing from volcanism, supplemented by gases produced during the late heavy bombardment of Earth by huge asteroids, produced the next atmosphere, consisting largely of nitrogen plus carbon dioxide and inert gases.

The third atmosphere: Free oxygen did not exist in the atmosphere until about 2.4 billion years ago during the Great Oxygenation Event and its appearance is indicated by the end of the banded iron formations. Before this time, any oxygen produced by photosynthesis was consumed by oxidation of reduced materials, notably iron. Molecules of free oxygen did not start to accumulate in the atmosphere until the rate of production of oxygen began to exceed the availability of reducing materials. This point signifies a shift from a reducing atmosphere to an oxidizing atmosphere. O2 showed major variations until reaching a steady state of more than 15% by the end of the Precambrian. The following time span from 541 million years ago to the present day is the Phanerozoic Eon, during the earliest period of which, the Cambrian, oxygen-requiring metazoan life forms began to appear. The amount of oxygen in the atmosphere has fluctuated over the last 600 million years, reaching a peak of about 30% around 280 million years ago, significantly higher than today’s 21%.

So far we were able to put a date on the most important geological events needed for our study.
Earth’s formation began 4.5 billion years ago,
by 2.5 bya the tectonic plates,
continents existed ~ 2-1.85 bya,
~ 1.6 bya the atmosphere started to have oxygen
by 600 mya the atmosphere was filled 40% with it. Personally I find that marvelous!

Let me explain, the Holy Scriptures tells us that God created Earth and the sky in 6 days, 4 for earth and 2 for the sky.
So ~ 2-1.85 bya continents existed which means that earth needed 2.7 billion years to have a fully developed land mass. Then to turn its atmosphere suitable for life earth needed about 1 billion year. That means that each day for the land formation was 600-700 million years and the sky was about 500 million years.
That’s it, it’s so wonderful to know that 6 days aren’t exactly “6”, after all God knows best.

What about … #34

The moon was formed approximately at the same time that Earth was formed. At that time much of the Earth was molten because of frequent collisions with other bodies which led to extreme volcanism, so was the moon.

Among the few theories which describes the moon’s formation, I think that the “double planet hypothesis” is the best, but it needs some adjustments.

The idea is that the Earth and Moon formed at about the same time in the same region of the solar system and were close enough together to form a bound system with each other is acceptable. The problem for which this theory is not accepted is because of the great difference in composition of the Earth and Moon. If they formed at about the same time in the same region of space by the same mechanisms, then they would be expected to be very similar in structure and composition. But the Earth has an average density of 5.5 gm/cm3 and the Moon has a much lower overall density, 3.34 gm/cm3, indicating that it lacks the iron core.

The densities of Mercury, Venus, and Mars are 5.4 gm/cm3, 5.24 gm/cm3, and 3.94 gm/cm3 respectively. Even the majority of meteorites have densities greater than the Moon and many are mostly iron, suggesting that a large iron content is part of the expected composition of objects formed in the Earth’s part of the solar system.

Now, in favor of this hypothesis include the fact that the Moon’s composition is very similar to material in the Earth’s mantle. Furthermore, the oxygen isotopic content of the Moon rocks is identical to that in Earth rocks and the differentiated meteorites, suggesting that it formed in the same part of the solar system.

If we look closely to the four rocky planets i.e Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars we may notice that the two closest planets to the sun have similar densities – maybe because they are close to the sun. While the last four are gas planets – probably because they are farther from the sun. So I don’t see why Earth’s density must be different from Mars’ !

If so, than the anomaly comes Earth and not the moon. So to understand from where this excess of density comes from we must turn to Asteroids and meteorites.

In the Earth’s Late Bombardment, Earth was hit by thousands of spacial objects which were made of different properties. One of them was what Astronomers think was a collision between Earth and Theia that happened at about 4.4 to 4.45 bya; about 100 million years after the Solar System began to form.

Theia might have been made entirely of iron which brought iron to the earth’s core, either Theia or another is what changed Earth’s composition.

Personally I believe that the moon was a separate celestial body with the same properties that Earth had. Then the semi-molten Earth was struck by a giant iron asteroid which turned a life-less planet into what it is now.

 

What about … #33

What is time exactly? It is a system of measurement for a certain period that we find either short or long.
Time doesn’t exist by itself – i.e after the big bang, there was no day 1.
The universe didn’t take an amount of time to be what it is now. Everywhere it is still “day one,” because there is no day at all. There are no clocks out there, no nights, subsequently no days either.
Time as we know it, was invented by humans. So time exists for the living things such as plants, animals and humans, we have been giving time for non-living things such as planets, galaxies, even the universe, to have a notion of how old thigs might be, but that isn’t how things are in the reality.
The Holy Scriptures tells us that the world has been created in 6 days, see this previous post for details, so this proves that God’s timescale and ours aren’t the same.
Time is relative for each of us, if we didn’t have the “time”, we would never agree on when to plant seeds, how old a child is or if it’s summer or fall. But of course everything has a second side of the story. If there is “time” there is an end to it too, which means death. No time, no death.
So isn’t it a little of our fault to have invented the notion of time? If we didn’t, maybe “time” would have never existed

What about …. #32

Light or no light; this is the question.

We’re all fascinated by those splendid starry nights, where we see ourselves as small insignificant beings looking at a vast realm of wonders. We’re aware that those shinning white dots are painted on a black background, and that is what this is all about. I’ve been wondering about the darkness of space since I can remember.  I always thought that space was dark because that was its colour, space was THE black colour. Filled with different types of electromagnetic radiation which gives us about 97% to 3% of matter. But I’ve learned lately thanks to Joseph through the RTU blog that our eyes may deceive us sometimes. As I’ve written in a previous post called “Can we catch rainbows ”, “Pure white light” or that which comes from our Sun can be split into a continuous spectrum of frequencies that range from the shortwave ultraviolet to the near infra red longer wavelengths. Our human eye can distinguish around 10 million different such frequencies, not just 7. Seven has become a common misconception adopted as reality simply for most humans convenience. We can make black colour by mixing yellow, bleu and red, even though it’s never totally black.  To make things worse, black is the colour of an object which absorbs all of the colours of visible light, for which we can  assume to be the same as no light.

Our brain shows us what our eyes detect; they are light receptors. So when there is no light, there is nothing to be received, therefore we don’t see anything. Such as when we turn off the lights and we stand in a pitch “black” room. The room hasn’t turned black when the lights went off, it’s our brain that perceived the darkness as if it was  blackness.  We may still touch the chair or the table but we’re not able to see them. The universe uses the same mechanism with a slightly difference. The universe is only dark in the sense that it is devoid of radiation that can be detected by the human eye; if it is dark to the human, it does not make it devoid of electromagnetic radiation.

Now, to answer the main question, is space dark or black ?

It is dark. Because we perceive what has no light, black. If we take a region of space full of stars, we would notice that space is filled with light and colours. Space is a place of wonders, with which we would never be fully acquainted.

But in the reality, is space really dark? If we could travel to the end of the universe, would we see a different horizon? Or is darkness/nothingness an illusion perceived only by the human eye?

What about … #31

We’re used to think that things happen as we see them. When we look at a fallen tree, the first thing that comes to our mind is that the tree in question is dead or is dying either ways we know its fate. But if we set different eyes upon it we’ll be able to see that its story is much more than a simple fallen tree.

The tree use its roots to take in water and other essential nutrients. The leaves then use the water and carbon dioxide from the air, in combination with sunlight, to turn the water and carbon dioxide into glucose, also giving off the byproduct oxygen in the process.

If we take a step closer, we might see a few inhabitants enjoying their lives on it such as ants, worms, spiders. A deeper look might bring us to realize that these tiny creepers have built their nest under the bark for example. The big picture remains the same, a tree has fallen. But the other creatures which depend on it won’t appear unless we take a deeper look.

Have we ever watched a flock of birds flying in harmony? They all change direction at once following a random pattern. They are somehow synchronized when they do their spectacular dance. Have we ever seen one of them missing a turn, stopping in mid-air saying : Uh Oh, I’ve missed again. Hey! wait for me… ?

Have we ever watched a school of fish swimming as if they were following an invisible trail? They are hundreds zigzagging at the same time, at the same speed. None of them went astray! How do we explain this?

How can we explain this special bond between them? In fact it’s quite easy, they are all connected spirituality, they know/feel what their mates will do, so they do it too. They’re not the only creatures doing extraordinary things without an apparent reason.

We, human beings may have been able to do better than them, but we’re too focused on what we see, that those who can use that power are called Saints by some, Sorcerers in the middle age, Shaman…

Unfortunately we can’t prove these facts because they’re not part of the material world in which we live. In the Holy Scriptures God tells us that the Human Being can’t live without a spirit. The body is just a box in which the real person lives. Without it we wouldn’t be able to live on earth. We can’t be conscious of that unless we ask ourselves some questions without putting the easiest answer before us. For instance when we’re reading who is performing the action?

We read the letters composing a word, a word making a sentence, a sentence forming a paragraph, etc… when we process these, our mind translates what we read into a video or a picture depending on what we’re reading. If we’re going through a hunting magazine, our mind will show us for example the new outfit we’re reading about or the way an animal behaves according to the article. But if we’re seeing that outfit or that animal, who is reading the letters turning them into words, words into sentences…? If we’re busy watching a great movie on tv we’ll hardly write a perfect letter to our boss! The watcher in us is what we call spirit, the one who gets the intuition, who wakes us in the middle of the night for no particular reason to find that our neighbor’s apartment is on fire, who suggest us the right decisions, etc…

I suggest you to read The Power of Intention by Dr Wayne or Synchro Destiny by Deepak Chopra for detailed explanations. And you may read as well here a previous post on the subject.

What about … #30

Crypting and decrypting is part of an encryption project. Some call it cipher and decipher but it’s the same mechanism. When you start encrypting a document for example, you start by choosing the key with which you’ll hide the real message. Nowadays we use programs such as Axcrypt, Kruptos, Folder Lock, etc… which gives us the opportunity to choose between different forms of encryption and without bothering ourselves to find a way to hide a message. But before the 20th century everything was different. There were different methods which were ingenious for their time. A little bit of History:
The earliest known use of cryptography is found in non-standard hieroglyphs carved into the wall of a tomb from the Old Kingdom of Egypt circa 1900 BCE. These are not thought to be serious attempts at secret communications, however, but rather to have been attempts at mystery, intrigue, or even amusement for literate onlookers. These are examples of still other uses of cryptography, or of something that looks (impressively if misleadingly) like it. Some clay tablets from Mesopotamia somewhat later are clearly meant to protect information—one dated near 1500 BCE was found to encrypt a craftsman’s recipe for pottery glaze, presumably commercially valuable.Later still, Hebrew scholars made use of simple monoalphabetic substitution ciphers (such as the Atbash cipher) beginning perhaps around 500 to 600 BCE.

David Kahn notes in The Codebreakers that modern cryptology originated among the Arabs, the first people to systematically document cryptanalytic methods. The invention of the frequency-analysis technique for breaking monoalphabetic substitution ciphers, by Al-Kindi, an Arab mathematician, sometime around AD 800 proved to be the single most significant cryptanalytic advance until World War II. Al-Kindi wrote a book on cryptography entitled Risalah fi Istikhraj al-Mu’amma (Manuscript for the Deciphering Cryptographic Messages), in which he described the first cryptanalytic techniques, including some for polyalphabetic ciphers, cipher classification, Arabic phonetics and syntax, and, most importantly, gave the first descriptions on frequency analysis. He also covered methods of encipherments, cryptanalysis of certain encipherments, and statistical analysis of letters and letter combinations in Arabic.

Ahmad al-Qalqashandi (AD 1355–1418) wrote the Subh al-a ‘sha, a 14-volume encyclopedia which included a section on cryptology. This information was attributed to Ibn al-Durayhim who lived from AD 1312 to 1361, but whose writings on cryptography have been lost. The list of ciphers in this work included both substitution and transposition, and for the first time, a cipher with multiple substitutions for each plaintext letter. Also traced to Ibn al-Durayhim is an exposition on and worked example of cryptanalysis, including the use of tables of letter frequencies and sets of letters which cannot occur together in one word.

The earliest example of the homophonic substitution cipher is the one used by Duke of Mantua in the early 1400s. Homophonic cipher replaces each letter with multiple symbols depending on the letter frequency. The cipher is ahead of the time because it combines monoalphabetic and polyalphabetic features.

Essentially all ciphers remained vulnerable to the cryptanalytic technique of frequency analysis until the development of the polyalphabetic cipher, and many remained so thereafter. The polyalphabetic cipher was most clearly explained by Leon Battista Alberti around the year AD 1467, for which he was called the “father of Western cryptology”.

So, as long as we have the key to decipher a document, everything is ok, but when we don’t, the problem begins.
Let’s take an example:
Let’s say that we have an ancient book with several chapters – written in a common language – among these chapters some of them have curious detached letters in the beginning, some repeat themselves and some don’t. These strange letters don’t form a word and are not an abbreviation, so what are they exactly? We start reading those special chapters, but nothing in them seems to refer to these letters. So I assume that the solution is elsewhere.
Maybe they’re not letters after all, what if they were numbers? But how are we going to find the solution if we don’t know what those numbers refer to? And this goes on till we find the key to unlock the message.
At least nowadays it is much much easier, if we don’t have the password, we may find another way around…

What about… #29 

Today’s post isn’t really about books, but I have to start by speaking about one that I’ve just finished. The latest novel by Dan Brown; Origin.

I have to say that I was a little disappointed. The book’s topic (about which I’ll speak further) isn’t the problem but having read all of his novels, I find this one a remake of Inferno or The Da Vinci Code or even The Lost Symbol. Robert Langdon; which is the main Charater of most of Brown’s stories, fleeing a danger with a women to try to resolve an enigma.

Usually there is something innovative which makes every book a new story, such as in “Inferno” Robert Langdon, lost his memory and was shot. In “The Da Vinci Code” everything was unexpected. In “The Lost Symbol” Robert Langdon was unexpectedly called to a meeting place to find just a severed hand waiting for him. But this one looks like a bit of every past books, Robert Langdon is in the same kind of trouble he was in every other book! Nothing unexpected.

What I DID like about this book is that it speaks a lot about art, history and science.

Now the main topic of this book is the Origin of men and its future. An atheist scientist called Kirsch made a phenomenal dicovery which cost him his life before he can share it with the world. Robert Langdon and a woman called Vidal must do the impossible to broadcast the discovery even though they are threatened to be killed by someone who wishes to stop them spreading the news, that the creation can exist without a God.

Kirsch as a believer in the Darwinian theory (but not entirely satisfied as Darwin didn’t explain how life arrived on earth in the first place) made his own reasearch.

The idea is that Life can create itself with the right ingredients and conditions; it’s a paradox when we’re aware that the univese is a world of Entropy or should we say Chaos. Let me give you some details:

We build a castle of sand by the sea, when a wave hits the castle it disorganize the sand castle into scattered grains: no more castle.

Things are irreversible, when you put a hot mug of coffee on the table, it gets cold. The coffee never magically reheat itself.

Entropy is just a fancy way of saying that things fall apart. An organized system, inevitably deteriorates. Sand castles never spontaneously appear in the universe, they only disappear.

So Kirsch enhanced a technique used in 1953 by two scientists Muller & Urey who tried to recreate the Primordial Soup, trying to create life within a flask of non living chemicals.

Chemists after them tried repeatedly using different combination of ingredients, different heath patterns but nothing worked.

But what is a Premordial Soup? After duplicating the chemicals that existed in the early oceans and atmosphere – water, methane, ammonia, and hydrogen – Muller and Urey heated all of this to simulate the boiling seas. Then they shocked it with electric charges to mimic lightning and they finally let the mixture cool just as the planet’s oceans had cooled. Of course that didn’t work. So in addition to this, Kirsch added electromagnetism to a 64 year old flask belonging to Muller and Urey and that’s it; he created Primitive organism.

According to him the Premordial Soup needed electromagnetism to put chaos in order, to create life. Therefore, if life simply happened as an inevitable by product of the laws of nature we have to conclude that because life spontaneously appeared here on earth, it almost certainly did the same thing elsewhere in the cosmos. Meaning man is not unique and man is not alone in the universe.

My first reaction was the same as Robert’s in the book: if the laws of nature can actually create life, then who created the laws?

We don’t need life to happen by product of the laws to believe that other lives exists in the cosmos. Who didn’t wonder what’s up there, gazing at the night’s sky?

Those billions of stars and what’s in between, hold such mysteries that we’re unable to provide all the answers needed to cease to be amazed at what we look at. The sky (universe) is an unfriendly place for any earthly living creature, and the “luck” as some atheists would say, has put us in the perfect planet that sustains life in all sense. But of course among the multitude of different stars, it is unthinkable that we’re the only living beings in such a vast creation. What’s out there is so far that we’re not (yet) able to reach out for them. After all…. after seeing all those Alien movies saying that they are monsters wanting to destroy us in any possible way….. I’m not sure that they are so far from us for no reason. In reality, I believe that we have our own issues here, for land, for beliefs, for ethnicity… can you imagine if we had Aliens as well to negotiate with? We’re not mature enough to handle something smarter, stronger and maybe taller than us. We’re still savages fighting among ourselves, what’s out there are other creations either more peaceful or more rebellious and either of these, we’re no match for it.

Some people don’t believe in extraterrestrial life, why not?

The universe is big enough for all of us, and surely what is beyond our knowledge is far more real and powerful than what we’re aware of. We don’t need to go into other galaxies to search for life, our own has 200 to 400 billion of stars. Can you put a percentage on how many of these are such as ours? Let’s say 1%, that gives us 2-4 billion of possibilities where a developed form of life exists.

Next time you look at the skies, be sure that somewhere out there, another form of life is gazing at the same stars you’re looking at. We’re not alone, we share the same universe, the same questions, the same Creator.

If I were interested in the origin of men, among all the books available I would read this one, which is very interesting and surprising.