Dreaming is what we do every time we sleep even if we don’t remember our dreams. there are three stages in sleeping, in the first stage: Our eyes are closed, but it’s easy to wake up. This phase may last for 5 to 10 minutes. The second one: We are in light sleep. Our heart rate slows and our body temperature drops. Our body is getting ready for deep sleep. And the third one: This is the deep sleep stage. It’s harder to rouse ourselves during this stage, and if someone wake us up, we would feel disoriented for a few minutes. This first three stages are called NREM sleep (non-rapid eye movement), during the deep stages of NREM sleep, the body repairs and regrows tissues, builds bone and muscle, and strengthens the immune system, followed by the REM sleep which happens 90 minutes after we fall asleep. The first period of REM lasts about 10 minutes. Each of our later REM stages gets longer, and the final one may last up to an hour. Our heart rate and breathing quickens and it’s the phase where we have intense dreams since our brain is more active. We may experience nightmares among those dreams. But the fascinating thing about nightmares is the reaction of our brain. Research has shown that a lot of dreaming occurs in the visual cortex, which is linked to the amygdala (an emotional response center). During a nightmare, the amygdala sense the fear in the person and cut REM process, so both of them, the visual cortex and the amygdala, get fired up and trigger autonomic arousal of the body, (the heart starts beating faster, breathing becomes labored, and we can start sweating profusely) we wake up in a panic. That means that thanks to the amygdala we may come out of a horrible nightmare which we wouldn’t be able without it! How fantastic!
In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities. The figure on the right illustrates the geometric relationship. Expressed algebraically, for quantities a and b with a > b > 0,
I found this article which I recommend to read:
who reminded me of a video that I’ve seen a few years ago:
I’m amazed at how things are created so well measured, we can find this proportion almost anywhere, especially things which aren’t man-made.
If you look closely at the trees, flowers, animals, faces (human or animal), etc… you’ll probably be amazed as well.
How is it possible that some people believe that everything is created by chance, by evolution? Can chance or evolution measure perfectly exactly 1.6180339887? How pathetic! Evolution may as well build a Boeing 747 out of a scrap depot.
The moon 54.49 Everything We created is precisely measured.
The Divorce 65.3 3. And will provide for him from where he never expected. Whoever relies on God—He will suffice him. God will accomplish His purpose. God has set a measure to all things.
Looking at the sky in a moonless night, seeing the Milky Way’s belt and these tiny shining stars; I believe it’s the most beautiful scenery we can wish for. It’s really breathtaking. I wish I could be among the first who will go to Mars, to look at the sky from a different planet, to touch a soil which has never been touched, to feel the sun from a further point in the universe. But of course it’s just a wish.
The universe is getting bigger and bigger each second, each minute, everything is moving either slower or faster, it seems that everything is going somewhere for a specific reason. practically we’re mere travelers of a spaceship. But it “happens” that our spaceship is fitted to sustain life.
Let’s see it this way: Where do we come from? Multiple answers might be answered, but the most reasonable one is from Adam and Eve as it is said in God’s books, which we all know that they lived in heaven before being sent down here.
117. We said, “O Adam, this is an enemy to you and to your wife. So do not let him make you leave the Garden, for then you will suffer.
118. In it you will never go hungry, nor be naked.
119. Nor will you be thirsty in it, nor will you swelter.”
120. But Satan whispered to him. He said, “O Adam, shall I show you the Tree of Immortality, and a kingdom that never decays?”
121. And so they ate from it; whereupon their bodies became visible to them, and they started covering themselves with the leaves of the Garden. Thus Adam disobeyed his Lord, and fell.
122. But then his Lord recalled him, and pardoned him, and guided him.
123. He said, “Go down from it, altogether; some of you enemies of some others. But whenever guidance comes to you from Me, whoever follows My guidance, will not go astray, nor suffer.
124. But whoever turns away from My Reminder, for him is a confined life. And We will raise him on the Day of Resurrection blind.”
So thinking from the beginning, we are heavenly people who were sent to a suitable environment to live before going back to our original place (I’m speaking literally not religiously such as who will go to heaven or hell). So If we are renting earth for a period of time, that means that we are Aliens living in a place which isn’t ours, but we’re making of it our property. That reminds me of an article I read lately in:
the chain reaction of events that allowed life to come about on this planet is remarkable, as are the things we have achieved. However I do believe we occupy an unimaginably small place in the universe, a universe which contains billions of other Earth-like planets – perhaps we often forget this and as such overestimate our uniqueness.
All there is left to say is the Multiverse Theory, based on eternal inflation, leaves us feeling all that much tinier than before. We may no longer be just one tiny planet in a galaxy with thousands of planets, in a universe with billions of other galaxies – we could now be merely a bubble of a universe in a sea of many other bubbles. I hope this leaves you with the feeling that mankind is not special as it believes itself to be – we just happened to exist in a smidgen that allowed our particular form of consciousness to exist and with the lack of competition reaching our tiny corner we proclaim ourselves remarkable.
I really enjoyed reading these two quotes, some of us proclaim to be superior to others just because they have, they achieved, they acquired something that others don’t have, so they lack of competition as well! How foolish to we would be if we were visited by super intelligent Aliens (they don’t have to be bad to be Alliens). There is a book called The visitors by Clifford Simak which gives a good example of what Aliens might be. Personally I think that Earth would have been better ruled if we had Aliens instead of politicians to rule us.
So are we Human beings living on Earth or Aliens?
If we look back half a century and backwards, we would notice that life was in a way, easier and longer than it is now. It seems that new technologies, instead of helping us to achieve things more quickly and easily, it steals time from us. New technologies is what is keeping us away from our lives. It’s not that I’m against new technologies on the contrary!
I’m just saying that these improvements are keeping us distracted from our families, from time, devotion, sleeping, …. for instance in the 18th century, when a blacksmith finished his work or project, he had time to talk with his friends or to go home early if he wanted to. Now with globalization, the blacksmith has his own project plus hundreds or thousands of other tasks to get done before due time. So he no longer has time to take enough care of his family or himself. Another example, a kid uses his smartphone going to school and returning home. When he arrives, he goes to his computer and chat with his friends online, then he makes his homework or he plays a video game sometimes online sometimes not. When super is ready, he eats quickly because he invited a neighbor to play with PlayStation with him. His mom is not so different, she was on the phone with a friend most of the afternoon, then she’ll make a video for YouTube. His father? Well he’s busy with his business project which must be ready for the next presentation.
Fortunately not every family is this crazy, but you know that this happens every day everywhere in the world.
When we go to bed at night, we may notice that the day lasted just a few hours and we didn’t have enough time to do all the things we needed to do. Where did the time go? Why is the day shorter than a century ago? Some people might say ” No, I’ve got plenty of time to do whatever I want. Today I went fishing, the day is still 12h long” probably because they still live in an ancient way, no phones, no internet, no computer, that’s good but that person misses the opportunity to learn new thing, to buy new things, to get to know new people, or even to do good deeds. Everything is good in moderation, that’s the key for “time”. Today is a day that some people call all saints day, it is to visit our beloved departed people. Does that mean that we should forget them the other 364 day of the year? Why should we visit them especially this day? Don’t they deserve to be visited every day, every Monday or every Friday? Life is short we shouldn’t waste it or share it with cool devices all the time.
Hello everyone, today I’ll do my best to explain the properties of consciousness – according to me.
This post is related to these pages
Conscious thought and fuzzy reality
From which I’ll borrow some sentences.
I’ve read both of them several times to get a full understanding on the topic (I know, I’m not really smart).
To begin with, what it is to be conscious?
The state of being aware of and responsive to one’s surroundings.
Human beings and animals are among very few things which are responsive to one’s surroundings. We could say that automatic doors are responsive, car alarms as well, but we can’t call that consciousness can we? Sensors were built just to detect “anomalies”, while animals are responsive according to the degree of their intelligence, for instance you can’t pretend to find a bird saying to himself “No I won’t go near that cheese because it’s a mouse trap!” but you may see it in monkeys maybe.
Early ideas of consciousness can be traced very far back in history; it is a very human question to ponder. It is one that has troubled the minds of great thinkers for a very long time. Descartes was convinced that the human body and human consciousness were two separable items; the first a material body the second an immaterial item (if an item can indeed ever be immaterial).
Now for there first part to understand consciousness, we need to look into the non-observable domain. We’re aware that everything in the universe is made of electron, protons and neutrons but that’s not all, there are tinier things called quarks and even more tiny called bosons, unfortunately in science proof is very important, to call “it” a fact otherwise it will be just a theory.
Well, the most pertinent school of thought in philosophy of science is called Entity Realism. We cannot see quarks directly however what we can see is the effects they have on larger entities. The proponent of Entity Realism, Ian Hacking, reasons along these lines. He argues that we understand the properties of the electrons and even though we cannot see them we can change variables in the system to manipulate their behaviour in order to produce effects on larger observables which we can can see. Now this manipulation of the unobservable entities and their produced effects is though to be proof enough of their existence. As long as we can manipulate and intervene on scientific entities in a laboratory to create phenomena we expect, we are justified to believe in their existence as the causal entities at work in the observed effects.
That’s the problem why lots of scientists are atheists, if they can’t “manipulate” God or can’t see some proof of him, than he doesn’t exist. The answer lies here: We cannot see quarks directly however what we can see is the effects they have on larger entities.
Actually we can see the effects God has on small and large entities.
The Thunder 13 3-4
And it is He who spread the earth, and placed in it mountains and rivers. And He placed in it two kinds of every fruit. He causes the night to overlap the day. In that are signs for people who reflect. On earth are adjacent terrains, and gardens of vines, and crops, and date-palms, from the same root or from distinct roots, irrigated with the same water. We make some taste better than others. In that are proofs for people who reason.
The Bees 16 11-17
And He produces for you grains with it, and olives, and date-palms, and grapes, and all kinds of fruits. Surely in that is a sign for people who think. And He regulated for you the night and the day; and the sun, and the moon, and the stars are disposed by His command. Surely in that are signs for people who ponder.
And whatsoever He created for you on earth is of diverse colors. Surely in that is a sign for people who are mindful. And it is He who made the sea to serve you, that you may eat from it tender meat, and extract from it ornaments that you wear. And you see the ships plowing through it, as you seek His bounties, so that you may give thanks. And he cast mountains on the earth, lest it shifts with you; and rivers, and roads, so that you may be guided. And landmarks. And by the stars they guide themselves. Is He who creates like him who does not create? Will you not take a lesson?
The winds that scatter 51 20-25
And of His signs is that He created you from dust; and behold, you become humans spreading out. And of His signs is that He created for you mates from among yourselves, so that you may find tranquility in them; and He planted love and compassion between you. In this are signs for people who reflect. And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the diversity of your languages and colors. In this are signs for those who know. And of His signs are your sleep by night and day, and your pursuit of His bounty. In this are signs for people who listen. And of His signs is that He shows you the lightning, causing fear and hope. And He brings down water from the sky, and with it He revives the earth after it was dead. In this are signs for people who understand. And of His signs is that the heaven and the earth stand at His disposal. And then, when He calls you out of the earth, you will emerge at once.
The question is: why should the independent existence of objects rely on what we can see with our tiny eyeballs or what we can manipulate with our level of technology. If our technology so increases to be able to manipulate a quark, was the quark non-existent before? I think not. This reminds me of a similar philosophical line which equally gets on my grind ‘if a tree falls in a forest and no-one is around to hear it, does it still make a sound?’ Of course it does, unless you believe the laws of nature are entirely dependent upon the perception of a particular species living on one planet.
Now to get back on the topic, is there a specific location for consciousness ? Some people believe that it is stored in the brain “The consensus is that consciousness comes from the brain” but they haven’t found real evidence of it. Well someone I know thinks that it is a part of our soul (Personally I think that’s the best theory so far). I know that some people don’t believe in spirits or souls but fortunately most of us do. Each and everyone of us has a soul with which he lives till he dies, that is what the Bible says in :
And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Rather fear him who can destroy both soul and body in hell.
And the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the spirit returns to God who gave it.
Then the Lord God formed the man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living creature.
And the Quran:
The Groups 39: 42
God takes the souls at the time of their death, and those that die not during their sleep; then He withholds those on whom He has passed the decree of death and sends the others back till an appointed term; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect.
The Prostration 32: 7-9
(It is He) Who made good everything that He has created, and He began the creation of man from dust. Then He made his progeny of an extract of water held in light estimation. Then He made him complete and breathed into him of His spirit, and made for you the ears and the eyes and the hearts; little is it that you give thanks.
The Journey by Night 17: 85
And they ask you about the soul. Say: The soul is one of the commands of my Lord, and you are not given aught of knowledge but a little.
I think that the best approach is to say that our soul has a connection with our brain in an unknown way. Descartes said that the human body and human consciousness were two separable items, and that is precisely the thing.
Suggesting that perhaps what is responsible for our consciousness is processes which take place within neurons themselves rather than the interactions between neurons which is the conventional view.
Suggesting that the soul has connections with the brain in the quantum level, that may be the case. Now the brain will continue to run for 10 to 20 seconds after death but it remains conscious for about 3 minutes
eventually the activity will cease and the person will think no more; so what actually happens to it? If we are to take the approach that these things are stored via quantum mechanical processes then we must look to the idea that the information within the brain dissipates and is involved in irreversible reactions where it is lost from and the stored information is unwound into an unusable format
The fact that the brain remains conscious for 3 minutes makes me think that, that may be the time when we’ll be able to see our own life flashing before our eyes. Unfortunately we have very little knowledge about the soul but one thing for sure, the soul lives the body when the brain dies as well. That means that both are connected.
Some people asks themselves that if consciousness is in the quantum domain, are we real at all? aren’t we just a simulation?
That is a big question as well because some people believe that we’re not living our actual lives, this is just a memory. For example we’re already dead, we’re in our day of judgment and we’ve asked to be shown episodes of our lives for a reason or another – personally I don’t believe in this theory.
This author who has written lots of free downloadable scientific books, believe in it. According to him we could be living this life as if we were in a dream. Dreams are real when we’re dreaming them aren’t they? So for God, everything has already ended.
Because time does not exist in the sight of God, all things happen in a single moment, that is in the “present”. All events which we think of as past and future are present to God; in His sight everything is much more clear and vital than we can perceive. For example, at this moment Jonah (pbuh) is being cast into the sea as a result of the drawing of lots. At this moment Mary is speaking with Gabriel; Jesus (pbuh) is being born. At this moment Noah (pbuh) is driving the first nail into the ark and leaving the ark with his family at the place God chose for them.
This is just an extract of a book called Matter The Other Name for Illusion.
If some people don’t believe in something which can’t be proved, it doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist. But God knows best.
Today I’ll try to explain what the dark energy and dark matter are in my opinion.
We all heard of the theory of relativity which is quite dithering.
There are two kinds of relativity, the first is the special and the second is the general.
The first one says:
1. That the speed of light is constant. It never changes, whichever speed you travel with the speed of light will be the same. For this to happen, time slows down for the one who is moving close to the speed of light. It has to be close to the speed of light or at least half the speed of light, otherwise you won’t notice a thing.
2. If somebody is travelling at a different speed or direction than you, they will disagree with you on whether certain events happened at the same time. For instance, if you’re standing on a moving staircase moving at 2 km/Ⓗ and someone is watching you standing still, this person will see you moving at 2 km/Ⓗ. Now if you start walking on this stairs, you’ll see yourself walking at 2 km/Ⓗ but this person who is watching you will conclude that you’re walking at 4 km/Ⓗ. In fact both of you are right, it is a question of relativity.
3. If something is moving very fast, it gets shorter in the direction that it is moving. If you take a ball hanged on a piece of rope, and you make it spin faster and faster you’ll notice your ball getting shrink a little in the direction it is spinning, but if it spins close to the speed of light you’ll see it shrink a lot.
Now in the general relativity we can speak of the twin paradox which had nothing to do with our topic but to give a breve description we may say that two people moving apart, the first at a normal speed and the second close to the speed of light, if they could see each other’s watch, they would see each other’s time slowing down even though only close to the speed of light that time slows down. So when this person who is traveling close to the speed of light decides to go back, he will find the other person much older than him.
Speeding Up and Slowing Down Are the Same Thing, for e.g when you take a cab you feel the acceleration when the taxi driver accelerate, you feel a “force” pushing you behind. When this driver slows down, you feel something pushing you forward. in fact this is called “inertia”: something which has mass shouldn’t be changing state – either in motion or still. This force which pushes you backwards when the cab driver accelerates is the same sensation as gravity. When he slows down, it is your seat belt which stops you from moving forward, but you still feel this gravity which pulls you. It’s the same thing if you find yourself floating in space and a spaceship accelerates beneath you, you’ll feel or see yourself falling into the spaceship and as soon as it reaches you, you’ll feel as if gravity was pulling you from beneath. This is a way to say that gravity and acceleration is the same thing. To make myself clear I’m not speaking about the famous Newton’s gravity ( the more mass an object has, the more gravity it produce), I’m speaking about the source of gravity as mentioned above when you were floating in space. Massive object floating through space, attracts space to itself, which we call curved space or curved space-time. As “time” never leaves “space” it is better to call it spacetime.
The spin of a heavy object, such as Earth, should twist and distort the space-time around it.
Now what all this has to do with dark energy and dark matter? Well it is complicated to describe but you see, the dark energy is what is expanding the universe, so this dark energy is the pillar which holds the universe from crumbling upon us. without it the universe would have crunched already. But what is wonderful is that it’s an invisible pillar. Can you imagine a big building with its walls, its doors, its windows and even its roof but with nothing visible to hold the roof? So this dark energy coming from nowhere – it’s better to say “are” – are the pillars of this spectacular huge sky which stands all around us.
Black holes is a region of space having a gravitational field so intense that no matter or radiation can escape. So black holes slow down the expansion, absorbing whatever comes by. It turns out that roughly 68% of the universe is dark energy. Dark matter makes up about 27%. The rest – everything on Earth, everything ever observed with all of our instruments, all normal matter – adds up to less than 5% of the universe.
We know that space is not a completely empty space, we can find particles mainly, hydrogen and helium, or even gravitational waves which are ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as waves at the speed of light, generated in certain gravitational interactions that propagate outward from their source, but I believe that space isn’t completely empty by no means. It is huge gravitational field.
Between the possibilities for the dark energy to be – a property of space, a new dynamic fluid, or a new theory of gravity – I would personally believe that it’s a property of space! It’s the pillar which holds and expands the heavens.
The dark matter is even more complicated, although it has not been directly observed, its existence and properties are inferred from its gravitational effects such as the motions of visible matter, gravitational lensing, its influence on the universe’s large-scale structure, and its effects in the cosmic microwave background. Dark matter is transparent to electromagnetic radiation it is so dense and small that it fails to absorb or emit enough radiation to be detectable with current imaging technology. Some galaxies are made of 99% of dark matter such as Dragonfly 44, an ultra diffuse galaxy with the mass of the Milky Way galaxy, but with nearly no discernable stars or galactic structure or even VIRGOHI21.
We wouldn’t be able to live without the main source of light which is the sun. When we think about it, it is more vital than any other thing around us. Without it we wouldn’t have food, water, heat or even vitamin D. Thank God that we’re on a planet not too close nor too far from this special star.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process. It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System.
The thing is that stars aren’t all equal some of them are bigger but short-lived, some are smaller but live a very long life.
DWARF STARS “K and M type”
Dwarf stars are relatively small stars, up to 20 times larger than our sun and up to 20,000 times brighter.
YELLOW DWARF “G type”
Yellow dwarfs are small, main sequence stars. The Sun is a yellow dwarf.
RED DWARF “F type”
A red dwarf is a small, cool, very faint, main sequence star whose surface temperature is under about 4,000 K. Red dwarfs are the most common type of star. Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf.
RED GIANT “A type”
A red giant is a relatively old star whose diameter is about 100 times bigger than it was originally, and had become cooler (the surface temperature is under 6,500 K). They are frequently orange in color. Betelgeuse is a red giant. It is about 20 times as massive as the Sun about 14,000 times brighter than the Sun, and about 600 light-years from Earth.
BLUE GIANT “B type”
A blue giant is a huge, very hot, blue star. It is a post-main sequence star that burns helium.
SUPERGIANT “O type”
A supergiant is the largest known type of star; some are almost as large as our entire solar system. Betelgeuse and Rigel are supergiants. These stars are rare. When supergiants die they supernova and become black holes.
The difference between these stars are their size, temperature, mass, luminosity and radius. In about 4-6 billion years our star will turn into a red giant in its final stage. So the next time when we think that it’s a really hot day, we might think twice before saying it.
We find in various Holy Scriptures verses that Earth and the sky have been created in 6 days, which is of course inconceivable. But if the Holy Scriptures say so, there must be a reason. The only way to find out is to look for proofs which is what we’ll be looking for today.
The Book of Genesis, which is the first book of the Bible, starts with the creation of the world. The Hebrew meaning of “Genesis” is the Book of Beginnings. This is because many new beginnings are recorded in Genesis. There are seven periods of creation recorded. Although each of these has been translated as a “day”, the Hebrew word is “yom” which simply means a period of time with a beginning and an ending. It is unlikely to be a solar day since the sun, moon and stars do not appear until the fourth “day”.
Genesis 1:1-31 & 2:1-3:
1 When God began to create[a] the heavens and the earth— 2 the earth was without shape or form, it was dark over the deep sea, and God’s wind swept over the waters— 3 God said, “Let there be light.” And so light appeared. 4 God saw how good the light was. God separated the light from the darkness. 5 God named the light Day and the darkness Night.
There was evening and there was morning: the first day.
6 God said, “Let there be a dome in the middle of the waters to separate the waters from each other.” 7 God made the dome and separated the waters under the dome from the waters above the dome. And it happened in that way. 8 God named the dome Sky.
There was evening and there was morning: the second day.
9 God said, “Let the waters under the sky come together into one place so that the dry land can appear.” And that’s what happened. 10 God named the dry land Earth, and he named the gathered waters Seas. God saw how good it was. 11 God said, “Let the earth grow plant life: plants yielding seeds and fruit trees bearing fruit with seeds inside it, each according to its kind throughout the earth.” And that’s what happened. 12 The earth produced plant life: plants yielding seeds, each according to its kind, and trees bearing fruit with seeds inside it, each according to its kind. God saw how good it was.
13 There was evening and there was morning: the third day.
14 God said, “Let there be lights in the dome of the sky to separate the day from the night. They will mark events, sacred seasons, days, and years. 15 They will be lights in the dome of the sky to shine on the earth.” And that’s what happened. 16 God made the stars and two great lights: the larger light to rule over the day and the smaller light to rule over the night. 17 God put them in the dome of the sky to shine on the earth, 18 to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. God saw how good it was.
19 There was evening and there was morning: the fourth day.
20 God said, “Let the waters swarm with living things, and let birds fly above the earth up in the dome of the sky.” 21 God created the great sea animals and all the tiny living things that swarm in the waters, each according to its kind, and all the winged birds, each according to its kind. God saw how good it was. 22 Then God blessed them: “Be fertile and multiply and fill the waters in the seas, and let the birds multiply on the earth.”
23 There was evening and there was morning: the fifth day.
24 God said, “Let the earth produce every kind of living thing: livestock, crawling things, and wildlife.” And that’s what happened. 25 God made every kind of wildlife, every kind of livestock, and every kind of creature that crawls on the ground. God saw how good it was. 26 Then God said, “Let us make humanity in our image to resemble us so that they may take charge of the fish of the sea, the birds in the sky, the livestock, all the earth, and all the crawling things on earth.”
27 God created humanity in God’s own image, in the divine image God created them,[b] male and female God created them.
28 God blessed them and said to them, “Be fertile and multiply; fill the earth and master it. Take charge of the fish of the sea, the birds in the sky, and everything crawling on the ground.” 29 Then God said, “I now give to you all the plants on the earth that yield seeds and all the trees whose fruit produces its seeds within it. These will be your food. 30 To all wildlife, to all the birds in the sky, and to everything crawling on the ground—to everything that breathes—I give all the green grasses for food.” And that’s what happened. 31 God saw everything he had made: it was supremely good.
There was evening and there was morning: the sixth day.
2 The heavens and the earth and all who live in them were completed. 2 On the sixth [a] day God completed all the work that he had done, and on the seventh day God rested from all the work that he had done. 3 God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it God rested from all the work of creation.[b] 4 This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created.
Exodus 20:11 — For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day.
In the Quran:
7.54 Your Lord is God; He who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then established Himself on the Throne. The night overtakes the day, as it pursues it persistently; and the sun, and the moon, and the stars are subservient by His command. His is the creation, and His is the command. Blessed is God, Lord of all beings.
10.3 Your Lord is God, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then settled over the Throne, governing all things. There is no intercessor except after His permission. Such is God, your Lord—so serve Him. Will you not reflect?
11.7 It is He who created the heavens and the earth in six days—and His Throne was upon the waters—in order to test you—which of you is best in conduct. And if you were to say, “You will be resurrected after death,” those who disbelieve would say, “This is nothing but plain witchcraft.”
25.59 He who created the heavens and the earth and everything between them in six days, then settled on the Throne. The Most Merciful. Ask about Him a well-informed.
32.4 God is He who created the heavens and the earth and everything between them in six days, and then established Himself on the Throne. Apart from Him, you have no master and no intercessor. Will you not reflect?
41.9-12 Say, “Do you reject the One who created the earth in two days? And you attribute equals to Him? That is the Lord of the Universe.”
He placed mountains over it; and blessed it; and planned its provisions in four days equal, for all those who ask.
Then He turned to the sky, and it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth, “Come, willingly or unwillingly.” They said, “We come willingly.”
So He completed them as seven heavens in two days, and He assigned to each heaven its affair. And We decorated the lower heaven with lamps (stars), and for protection. That is the design of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.
50.38 We created the heavens and the earth and what is between them in six days, and no fatigue touched Us.
57.4 It is He who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then settled over the Throne. He knows what penetrates into the earth, and what comes out of it, and what descends from the sky, and what ascends to it. And He is with you wherever you may be. God is Seeing of everything you do.
The Arabic word for “day” is “youm” which simply means a period of time as well. Now, it is clear that the word day doesn’t mean actually 24h. If we’re searching for the amount of time which this day is about, we need to search it in Earth’s history.
Geologists divided Earth’s history in period of time called either Eons, Era, Age….
So here is a small description of periods in million years. which are called Eon:
Hadean 4,540–4,000 The Earth is formed out of debris around the solar protoplanetary disk. There is no life. Temperatures are extremely hot, with frequent volcanic activity and hellish environments. The atmosphere is nebular. Possible early oceans or bodies of liquid water. The moon is formed around this time, probably due to a protoplanet’s collision into Earth.
Archean 4,000–2,500 Prokaryote life, the first form of life, emerges at the very beginning of this eon, in a process known as abiogenesis. The continents of Ur, Vaalbara and Kenorland may have been formed around this time. The atmosphere is composed of volcanic and greenhouse gases.
Proterozoic 2,500–541 Eukaryotes, a more complex form of life, emerge, including some forms of multicellular organisms. Bacteria began producing oxygen, shaping the third and current of Earth’s atmospheres. Plants, later animals and possibly earlier forms of fungi form around this time. The early and late phases of this eon may have undergone “Snowball Earth” periods, in which all of the planet suffered below-zero temperatures. The early continents of Columbia, Rodinia and Pannotia may have formed around this time, in that order.
Phanerozoic 541–present Complex life, including vertebrates, began to dominate the Earth’s ocean in a process known as the Cambrian explosion. Pangaea forms and later dissolves into Laurasia and Gondwana. Gradually, life expanded to land and all familiar forms of plants, animals and fungi began appearing, including annelids, insects and reptiles. Several mass extinctions occur, among which birds, the descendants of dinosaurs, and more recently mammals emerge. The rise and evolution of the human species occur at the very recent phases of this eon.
The Archean Eon 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years), is one of the two most important Eon for our reasearch. During the Archean, the Earth’s crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents.
The Archean atmosphere is thought to have nearly lacked free oxygen. Astronomers think that the Sun had about 70–75 percent of the present luminosity, yet temperatures on Earth appear to have been near modern levels after only 500 Ma of Earth’s formation. The presence of liquid water is evidenced by certain highly deformed gneisses produced by metamorphism of sedimentary protoliths. The moderate temperatures may reflect the presence of greater amounts of greenhouse gases than later in the Earth’s history.
By the end of the Archaean c. 2500 Ma (million years ago), plate tectonic activity may have been similar to that of the modern Earth. There are well-preserved sedimentary basins, and evidence of volcanic arcs, intracontinental rifts, continent-continent collisions and widespread globe-spanning orogenic events suggesting the assembly and destruction of one and perhaps several supercontinents. Liquid water was prevalent, and deep oceanic basins are known to have existed attested by the presence of banded iron formations, chert beds, chemical sediments and pillow basalts.
The Proterozoic extended from 2500 Ma to 541 Ma (million years ago), is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth. It is subdivided into three geologic eras (from oldest to youngest): the Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, and Neoproterozoic.
The well-identified events of this eon were the transition to an oxygenated atmosphere during the Paleoproterozoic; several glaciations, which produced the hypothesized Snowball Earth during the Cryogenian Period in the late Neoproterozoic Era; and the Ediacaran Period (635 to 541 Ma) which is characterized by the evolution of abundant soft-bodied multicellular organisms and provides us with the first obvious fossil evidence of life on earth.
The Proterozoic Eon was a very tectonically active period in the Earth’s history. The late Archean Eon to Early Proterozoic Eon corresponds to a period of increasing crustal recycling, suggesting subduction. It is believed that 43% of modern continental crust was formed in the Proterozoic, 39% formed in the Archean, and only 18% in the Phanerozoic.
During the Paleoproterozoic era the earliest global-scale continent-continent collisional belts developed.
These continent and mountain building events are represented by the 2.1–2.0 Ga Transamazonian and Eburnean Orogens in South America and West Africa; the ~2.0 Ga Limpopo Belt in southern Africa; the 1.9–1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson, Penokean, Taltson–Thelon, Wopmay, Ungava and Torngat orogens in North America, the 1.9–1.8 Ga Nagssugtoqidain Orogen in Greenland; the 1.9–1.8 Ga Kola–Karelia, Svecofennian, Volhyn-Central Russian, and Pachelma Orogens in Baltica (Eastern Europe); the 1.9–1.8 Ga Akitkan Orogen in Siberia; the ~1.95 Ga Khondalite Belt and ~1.85 Ga Trans-North China Orogen in North China.
These continental collisional belts are interpreted as having resulted from 2.0–1.8 Ga global-scale collisional events that led to the assembly of a Paleo-Mesoproterozoic supercontinent named Columbia or Nuna.
The Mesoproterozoic Era is a geologic era that occurred from 1,600 to 1,000 million years ago. The Mesoproterozoic was the first period of Earth’s history of which a respectable geological record survives. Continents existed in the Paleoproterozoic, but we know little about them. It is noteworthy that the continental masses of the Mesoproterozoic are more or less the same ones that are with us today.
It was an Era of apparently critical, but still poorly understood, changes in the chemistry of the sea, the sediments of the earth, and the composition of the air. Oxygen levels had risen to perhaps 1% of today’s levels at the beginning of the era and continued rising throughout the Era.
I would recommend to read more about these periods on Wikipedia for more details.
The first atmosphere would have consisted of gases in the solar nebula, primarily hydrogen. In addition, there would probably have been simple hydrides such as those now found in the gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn), notably water vapor, methane and ammonia. As the solar nebula dissipated, these gases would have escaped, partly driven off by the solar wind.
The second atmosphere, outgassing from volcanism, supplemented by gases produced during the late heavy bombardment of Earth by huge asteroids, produced the next atmosphere, consisting largely of nitrogen plus carbon dioxide and inert gases.
The third atmosphere: Free oxygen did not exist in the atmosphere until about 2.4 billion years ago during the Great Oxygenation Event and its appearance is indicated by the end of the banded iron formations. Before this time, any oxygen produced by photosynthesis was consumed by oxidation of reduced materials, notably iron. Molecules of free oxygen did not start to accumulate in the atmosphere until the rate of production of oxygen began to exceed the availability of reducing materials. This point signifies a shift from a reducing atmosphere to an oxidizing atmosphere. O2 showed major variations until reaching a steady state of more than 15% by the end of the Precambrian. The following time span from 541 million years ago to the present day is the Phanerozoic Eon, during the earliest period of which, the Cambrian, oxygen-requiring metazoan life forms began to appear. The amount of oxygen in the atmosphere has fluctuated over the last 600 million years, reaching a peak of about 30% around 280 million years ago, significantly higher than today’s 21%.
So far we were able to put a date on the most important geological events needed for our study.
Earth’s formation began 4.5 billion years ago,
by 2.5 bya the tectonic plates,
continents existed ~ 2-1.85 bya,
~ 1.6 bya the atmosphere started to have oxygen
by 600 mya the atmosphere was filled 40% with it. Personally I find that marvelous!
Let me explain, the Holy Scriptures tells us that God created Earth and the sky in 6 days, 4 for earth and 2 for the sky.
So ~ 2-1.85 bya continents existed which means that earth needed 2.7 billion years to have a fully developed land mass. Then to turn its atmosphere suitable for life earth needed about 1 billion year. That means that each day for the land formation was 600-700 million years and the sky was about 500 million years.
That’s it, it’s so wonderful to know that 6 days aren’t exactly “6”, after all God knows best.
The moon was formed approximately at the same time that Earth was formed. At that time much of the Earth was molten because of frequent collisions with other bodies which led to extreme volcanism, so was the moon.
Among the few theories which describes the moon’s formation, I think that the “double planet hypothesis” is the best, but it needs some adjustments.
The idea is that the Earth and Moon formed at about the same time in the same region of the solar system and were close enough together to form a bound system with each other is acceptable. The problem for which this theory is not accepted is because of the great difference in composition of the Earth and Moon. If they formed at about the same time in the same region of space by the same mechanisms, then they would be expected to be very similar in structure and composition. But the Earth has an average density of 5.5 gm/cm3 and the Moon has a much lower overall density, 3.34 gm/cm3, indicating that it lacks the iron core.
The densities of Mercury, Venus, and Mars are 5.4 gm/cm3, 5.24 gm/cm3, and 3.94 gm/cm3 respectively. Even the majority of meteorites have densities greater than the Moon and many are mostly iron, suggesting that a large iron content is part of the expected composition of objects formed in the Earth’s part of the solar system.
Now, in favor of this hypothesis include the fact that the Moon’s composition is very similar to material in the Earth’s mantle. Furthermore, the oxygen isotopic content of the Moon rocks is identical to that in Earth rocks and the differentiated meteorites, suggesting that it formed in the same part of the solar system.
If we look closely to the four rocky planets i.e Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars we may notice that the two closest planets to the sun have similar densities – maybe because they are close to the sun. While the last four are gas planets – probably because they are farther from the sun. So I don’t see why Earth’s density must be different from Mars’ !
If so, than the anomaly comes Earth and not the moon. So to understand from where this excess of density comes from we must turn to Asteroids and meteorites.
In the Earth’s Late Bombardment, Earth was hit by thousands of spacial objects which were made of different properties. One of them was what Astronomers think was a collision between Earth and Theia that happened at about 4.4 to 4.45 bya; about 100 million years after the Solar System began to form.
Theia might have been made entirely of iron which brought iron to the earth’s core, either Theia or another is what changed Earth’s composition.
Personally I believe that the moon was a separate celestial body with the same properties that Earth had. Then the semi-molten Earth was struck by a giant iron asteroid which turned a life-less planet into what it is now.
What is time exactly? It is a system of measurement for a certain period that we find either short or long.
Time doesn’t exist by itself – i.e after the big bang, there was no day 1.
The universe didn’t take an amount of time to be what it is now. Everywhere it is still “day one,” because there is no day at all. There are no clocks out there, no nights, subsequently no days either.
Time as we know it, was invented by humans. So time exists for the living things such as plants, animals and humans, we have been giving time for non-living things such as planets, galaxies, even the universe, to have a notion of how old thigs might be, but that isn’t how things are in the reality.
The Holy Scriptures tells us that the world has been created in 6 days, see this previous post for details, so this proves that God’s timescale and ours aren’t the same.
Time is relative for each of us, if we didn’t have the “time”, we would never agree on when to plant seeds, how old a child is or if it’s summer or fall. But of course everything has a second side of the story. If there is “time” there is an end to it too, which means death. No time, no death.
So isn’t it a little of our fault to have invented the notion of time? If we didn’t, maybe “time” would have never existed