What about … #30

Crypting and decrypting is part of an encryption project. Some call it cipher and decipher but it’s the same mechanism. When you start encrypting a document for example, you start by choosing the key with which you’ll hide the real message. Nowadays we use programs such as Axcrypt, Kruptos, Folder Lock, etc… which gives us the opportunity to choose between different forms of encryption and without bothering ourselves to find a way to hide a message. But before the 20th century everything was different. There were different methods which were ingenious for their time. A little bit of History:
The earliest known use of cryptography is found in non-standard hieroglyphs carved into the wall of a tomb from the Old Kingdom of Egypt circa 1900 BCE. These are not thought to be serious attempts at secret communications, however, but rather to have been attempts at mystery, intrigue, or even amusement for literate onlookers. These are examples of still other uses of cryptography, or of something that looks (impressively if misleadingly) like it. Some clay tablets from Mesopotamia somewhat later are clearly meant to protect information—one dated near 1500 BCE was found to encrypt a craftsman’s recipe for pottery glaze, presumably commercially valuable.Later still, Hebrew scholars made use of simple monoalphabetic substitution ciphers (such as the Atbash cipher) beginning perhaps around 500 to 600 BCE.

David Kahn notes in The Codebreakers that modern cryptology originated among the Arabs, the first people to systematically document cryptanalytic methods. The invention of the frequency-analysis technique for breaking monoalphabetic substitution ciphers, by Al-Kindi, an Arab mathematician, sometime around AD 800 proved to be the single most significant cryptanalytic advance until World War II. Al-Kindi wrote a book on cryptography entitled Risalah fi Istikhraj al-Mu’amma (Manuscript for the Deciphering Cryptographic Messages), in which he described the first cryptanalytic techniques, including some for polyalphabetic ciphers, cipher classification, Arabic phonetics and syntax, and, most importantly, gave the first descriptions on frequency analysis. He also covered methods of encipherments, cryptanalysis of certain encipherments, and statistical analysis of letters and letter combinations in Arabic.

Ahmad al-Qalqashandi (AD 1355–1418) wrote the Subh al-a ‘sha, a 14-volume encyclopedia which included a section on cryptology. This information was attributed to Ibn al-Durayhim who lived from AD 1312 to 1361, but whose writings on cryptography have been lost. The list of ciphers in this work included both substitution and transposition, and for the first time, a cipher with multiple substitutions for each plaintext letter. Also traced to Ibn al-Durayhim is an exposition on and worked example of cryptanalysis, including the use of tables of letter frequencies and sets of letters which cannot occur together in one word.

The earliest example of the homophonic substitution cipher is the one used by Duke of Mantua in the early 1400s. Homophonic cipher replaces each letter with multiple symbols depending on the letter frequency. The cipher is ahead of the time because it combines monoalphabetic and polyalphabetic features.

Essentially all ciphers remained vulnerable to the cryptanalytic technique of frequency analysis until the development of the polyalphabetic cipher, and many remained so thereafter. The polyalphabetic cipher was most clearly explained by Leon Battista Alberti around the year AD 1467, for which he was called the “father of Western cryptology”.

So, as long as we have the key to decipher a document, everything is ok, but when we don’t, the problem begins.
Let’s take an example:
Let’s say that we have an ancient book with several chapters – written in a common language – among these chapters some of them have curious detached letters in the beginning, some repeat themselves and some don’t. These strange letters don’t form a word and are not an abbreviation, so what are they exactly? We start reading those special chapters, but nothing in them seems to refer to these letters. So I assume that the solution is elsewhere.
Maybe they’re not letters after all, what if they were numbers? But how are we going to find the solution if we don’t know what those numbers refer to? And this goes on till we find the key to unlock the message.
At least nowadays it is much much easier, if we don’t have the password, we may find another way around…

What about… #29 

Today’s post isn’t really about books, but I have to start by speaking about one that I’ve just finished. The latest novel by Dan Brown; Origin.

I have to say that I was a little disappointed. The book’s topic (about which I’ll speak further) isn’t the problem but having read all of his novels, I find this one a remake of Inferno or The Da Vinci Code or even The Lost Symbol. Robert Langdon; which is the main Charater of most of Brown’s stories, fleeing a danger with a women to try to resolve an enigma.

Usually there is something innovative which makes every book a new story, such as in “Inferno” Robert Langdon, lost his memory and was shot. In “The Da Vinci Code” everything was unexpected. In “The Lost Symbol” Robert Langdon was unexpectedly called to a meeting place to find just a severed hand waiting for him. But this one looks like a bit of every past books, Robert Langdon is in the same kind of trouble he was in every other book! Nothing unexpected.

What I DID like about this book is that it speaks a lot about art, history and science.

Now the main topic of this book is the Origin of men and its future. An atheist scientist called Kirsch made a phenomenal dicovery which cost him his life before he can share it with the world. Robert Langdon and a woman called Vidal must do the impossible to broadcast the discovery even though they are threatened to be killed by someone who wishes to stop them spreading the news, that the creation can exist without a God.

Kirsch as a believer in the Darwinian theory (but not entirely satisfied as Darwin didn’t explain how life arrived on earth in the first place) made his own reasearch.

The idea is that Life can create itself with the right ingredients and conditions; it’s a paradox when we’re aware that the univese is a world of Entropy or should we say Chaos. Let me give you some details:

We build a castle of sand by the sea, when a wave hits the castle it disorganize the sand castle into scattered grains: no more castle.

Things are irreversible, when you put a hot mug of coffee on the table, it gets cold. The coffee never magically reheat itself.

Entropy is just a fancy way of saying that things fall apart. An organized system, inevitably deteriorates. Sand castles never spontaneously appear in the universe, they only disappear.

So Kirsch enhanced a technique used in 1953 by two scientists Muller & Urey who tried to recreate the Primordial Soup, trying to create life within a flask of non living chemicals.

Chemists after them tried repeatedly using different combination of ingredients, different heath patterns but nothing worked.

But what is a Premordial Soup? After duplicating the chemicals that existed in the early oceans and atmosphere – water, methane, ammonia, and hydrogen – Muller and Urey heated all of this to simulate the boiling seas. Then they shocked it with electric charges to mimic lightning and they finally let the mixture cool just as the planet’s oceans had cooled. Of course that didn’t work. So in addition to this, Kirsch added electromagnetism to a 64 year old flask belonging to Muller and Urey and that’s it; he created Primitive organism.

According to him the Premordial Soup needed electromagnetism to put chaos in order, to create life. Therefore, if life simply happened as an inevitable by product of the laws of nature we have to conclude that because life spontaneously appeared here on earth, it almost certainly did the same thing elsewhere in the cosmos. Meaning man is not unique and man is not alone in the universe.

My first reaction was the same as Robert’s in the book: if the laws of nature can actually create life, then who created the laws?

We don’t need life to happen by product of the laws to believe that other lives exists in the cosmos. Who didn’t wonder what’s up there, gazing at the night’s sky?

Those billions of stars and what’s in between, hold such mysteries that we’re unable to provide all the answers needed to cease to be amazed at what we look at. The sky (universe) is an unfriendly place for any earthly living creature, and the “luck” as some atheists would say, has put us in the perfect planet that sustains life in all sense. But of course among the multitude of different stars, it is unthinkable that we’re the only living beings in such a vast creation. What’s out there is so far that we’re not (yet) able to reach out for them. After all…. after seeing all those Alien movies saying that they are monsters wanting to destroy us in any possible way….. I’m not sure that they are so far from us for no reason. In reality, I believe that we have our own issues here, for land, for beliefs, for ethnicity… can you imagine if we had Aliens as well to negotiate with? We’re not mature enough to handle something smarter, stronger and maybe taller than us. We’re still savages fighting among ourselves, what’s out there are other creations either more peaceful or more rebellious and either of these, we’re no match for it.

Some people don’t believe in extraterrestrial life, why not?

The universe is big enough for all of us, and surely what is beyond our knowledge is far more real and powerful than what we’re aware of. We don’t need to go into other galaxies to search for life, our own has 200 to 400 billion of stars. Can you put a percentage on how many of these are such as ours? Let’s say 1%, that gives us 2-4 billion of possibilities where a developed form of life exists.

Next time you look at the skies, be sure that somewhere out there, another form of life is gazing at the same stars you’re looking at. We’re not alone, we share the same universe, the same questions, the same Creator.

If I were interested in the origin of men, among all the books available I would read this one, which is very interesting and surprising.

What about… #20

Is cruelty part of the human nature?

I’ve finished reading the last book of Robin Hobb called Assassin’s Fate, which is the third book of the Fitz and the Fool triology about two weeks ago. And personally I hated a character named Dwalia for her cruelty upon a 10 year old girl (among other victims) and her hartless nature . This Dwalia made me think of all those human beings who suffered and still do by the hands of other beings. 

We all know the story of Cain and Abel, mentioned in the Holy Scripures. The Bible “Genesis”  4.2-16 tells us:

Now Abel kept flocks, and Cain worked the soil. 3 In the course of time Cain brought some of the fruits of the soil as an offering to the LORD. 4 And Abel also brought an offering—fat portions from some of the firstborn of his flock. The LORD looked with favor on Abel and his offering, 5 but on Cain and his offering he did not look with favor. So Cain was very angry, and his face was downcast. 6 Then the LORD said to Cain, “Why are you angry? Why is your face downcast? 7 If you do what is right, will you not be accepted? But if you do not do what is right, sin is crouching at your door; it desires to have you, but you must rule over it.” 8 Now Cain said to his brother Abel, “Let’s go out to the field.” While they were in the field, Cain attacked his brother Abel and killed him. 9 Then the LORD said to Cain, “Where is your brother Abel?” “I don’t know,” he replied. “Am I my brother’s keeper?” 10 The LORD said, “What have you done? Listen! Your brother’s blood cries out to me from the ground. 11 Now you are under a curse and driven from the ground, which opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood from your hand. 12 When you work the ground, it will no longer yield its crops for you. You will be a restless wanderer on the earth.” 13 Cain said to the LORD, “My punishment is more than I can bear. 14 Today you are driving me from the land, and I will be hidden from your presence; I will be a restless wanderer on the earth, and whoever finds me will kill me.” 15 But the LORD said to him, “Not so ; anyone who kills Cain will suffer vengeance seven times over.” Then the LORD put a mark on Cain so that no one who found him would kill him. 16 So Cain went out from the LORD’s presence and lived in the land of Nod, east of Eden.

And in the Quran in the chapter “TheTable” 5: 27-32

27. And relate to them the true story of Adam’s two sons: when they offered an offering, and it was accepted from one of them, but it was not accepted from the other. He Said, “I will kill you.” He Said, “God accepts only from the righteous.”

28. “If you extend your hand to kill me, I will not extend my hand to kill you; for I fear God, Lord of the Worlds.”

29. “I would rather you bear my sin and your sin, and you become among the inmates of the Fire. Such is the reward for the evildoers.”

30. Then His soul prompted him to kill his brother, so he killed him, and became one of the losers.

31. Then God sent a raven digging the ground, to show him how to cover his brother’s corpse. He said, “Woe to me! I was unable to be like this raven, and bury my brother’s corpse.” So he became full of regrets.

32. Because of that We ordained for the Children of Israel: that whoever kills a person—unless it is for murder or corruption on earth—it is as if he killed the whole of mankind; and whoever saves it, it is as if he saved the whole of mankind. Our messengers came to them with clarifications, but even after that, many of them continue to commit excesses in the land.

We know the torture that was inflicted on thousands of people in the middle age, i.e burned, chopped, hanged, drowned… it’s almost the same today, but in hidden places where no one witness their atrocities (prisons, rituals, laws)

Some people enjoy seeing a person in pain, but why?  Is it a psychological disorder? Or do they feel more powerful? Here is what I’ve found on Wikipedia: Torture has been carried out or sanctioned by individuals, groups, and states throughout history from ancient times to modern day, and forms of torture can vary greatly in duration from only a few minutes to several days or longer. Reasons for torture can include punishment, revenge, political re-education, deterrence, coercion of the victim or a third party, interrogation to extract information or a confession irrespective of whether it is false, or simply the sadistic gratification of those carrying out or observing the torture. In other cases, the torturer may be indifferent to the condition of the victim. Alternatively, some forms of torture are designed to inflict psychological pain or leave as little physical injury or evidence as possible while achieving the same psychological devastation. The torturer may or may not kill or injure the victim, but sometimes torture results in a deliberate death and serves as a form of capital punishment. Depending on the aim, even a form of torture that is intentionally fatal may be prolonged to allow the victim to suffer as long as possible (such as half-hanging).

Research during the past 60 years, starting with the Milgram experiment, suggests that under the right circumstances, and with the appropriate encouragement and setting, most people can be encouraged to actively torture others.

John Conroy:

“When torture takes place, people believe they are on the high moral ground, that the nation is under threat and they are the front line protecting the nation, and people will be grateful for what they are doing.”

Unfortunately the human being is really complex, we can find the most kind and the most evil in the same city. And the worst of all is that, the first impression someone takes isn’t always what it is. We can’t judge a person by its garments. There is so much evil in this world that I personally don’t trust easily the people I meet. Probably most of us are good, but in this planet where the big fish eats the small one, it’s best to stay focused, so that we don’t get eaten easily. Probably it’s mean of me to think that way,  but it is the way I see the world. I believe that we all lack of Innocence, since our first father and mother, but the difference between us is who strives for the greater good and who doesn’t.

What about … #9

Faith is something you believe in, very deeply. Some say they have faith in the president or in their husband or even in oneself. But those faiths are just a way to say that they trust whomever it is. The true faith is toward God. If someone has it, then he owns the world. Let me explain, if you are standing alone in the middle of a peaceful but huge forest, lost, having no idea where the highway is but you have to put your trust in God, it’s for sure that you won’t be lost for long, somehow you’ll find a way out, you just need to have faith in the Almighty. Another example, you’re taking an exam this afternoon, you know the answers but you’re freaking out, if you have faith in God, you’ll feel relieved knowing that He’ll sustain you, if you put your trust in Him.

Religion is the way you’ll practice your faith. You’ll have certain rules to follow. Not every believer follows the rules of its religion, that’s why some people describe themselves as non practitioners. Having a religion means, believing in God’s rules, following them or not isn’t the question. People may follow a religion but having no faith, i.e they’ve been following a routine since childhood but without knowledge.

Secularism is a way of life that allows a person to live his life without showing his belief, so that everyone may live in harmony, but it doesn’t forbid a person to show his belief if he wishes to. Unfortunately some people took advantage of the present situation in he world to change the intent of the word, and that’s the issue in France. They achieved their goal by turning the word Secular into a symbol of anti-religion.

What about … #8

We may read a brief description between faith and religion here:


<<“There is a difference between religion and faith,” Irma replied. “When you are solely responsible for your beliefs no one can question you faith nor tell you what is right or wrong. That is something only you have the right to decide. We all have an inner guiding system which, when we are synchronized to it, never takes us off the right track. Religion, on the other hand, is on organized set of beliefs and shared values where certain rules and discipline determined by a few need to be obeyed by everyone.

Also, religion and politics go hand in hand. Unfortunately, religion has often been used as an instrument to control and scare people. That is why we don’t have organized religion in Aire. This is how it has been since our foundation. Everyone is free to believe in whatever they please, but it is considered a private matter. We don’t need monumental buildings to protect our faith,” her father added. “In the outer world, religion is still causing more suffering than good, like it always has throughout history. Since gods will never come down on Earth and fight against each other, why should we fight in their name between ourselves?”

“You see, Taya,” Irma continued, “faith requires nothing more than what you are willing to offer. No sacrifices, no pain. Your beliefs are your private religion.”>>

According to me, I would described it as follows: When you are solely responsible for your beliefs no one can question you faith nor tell you what is right or wrong. That is something only you have the right to decide. We all have an inner guiding system which God granted us, we may call it conscience with which, when we are synchronized to it, never takes us off the right track but most of us don’t pay attention to it and do what it seems right for our own ego. Religion, on the other hand, is on organized set of beliefs and shared values where certain rules and discipline needs to be obeyed by everyone to remain on the right track.

Also, some say that religion and politics go hand in hand while others don’t. Unfortunately, religion has often been used as an instrument to control and scare people. Well all depends of who rules. If you look for state religion in wikipedia you’ll find this:

Roman CatholicismEdit

Jurisdictions where Roman Catholicism has been established as a state or official religion:

  •  Costa Rica: article 75 of the constitution of Costa Rica confirms that “The Roman Catholic and Apostolic Religion is the religion of the State, which contributes to its maintenance, without preventing the free exercise in the Republic of other forms of worship that are not opposed to universal morality or good customs.”[5]
  •  Liechtenstein: the constitution of Liechtenstein describes the Catholic Church as the state religion and enjoying“the full protection of the State”. The constitution does however ensure that people of other faiths “shall be entitled to practise their creeds and to hold religious services to the extent consistent with morality and public order.”[6]
  •  Malta: Article 2 of the Constitution of Malta declares that “the religion of Malta is the Roman Catholic Apostolic Religion”[7]
  •  Monaco: article 9 of the constitution of Monaco describes “La religion catholique, apostolique et romaine” [the catholic, apostolic and Roman religion]” as the religion of the state.[8]
  •   Vatican City: the Vatican is an ElectiveTheocratic, or sacerdotal Absolute Monarchy[9] ruled by the Pope, who is also the Vicar of the Catholic Church. The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergy of various national origins. It is the sovereign territory of the Holy See (LatinSancta Sedes) and the location of the Pope’s official residence, referred to as the Apostolic Palace.

Jurisdictions that give constitutional privileges to Roman Catholicism without establishing it as the state religion:

Eastern OrthodoxyEdit

  •  GreeceChurch of Greece[16]
  •  GeorgiaGeorgian Orthodox Church is not the state church of Georgia but has a special constitutional agreement with the state, with the constitution recognising “the special role of the Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church of Georgia in the history of Georgia and its independence from the state.”[17] (See also Concordat of 2002)
  •  Bulgaria: in the Bulgarian Constitution, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church is recognized as “the traditional religion” of the Bulgarian people, but the state itself remains secular.



In the 19th century, there was a campaign by Liberalsdissenters and nonconformists to disestablish the Church of England. The campaign for disestablishment was revived in the 20th century when Parliament rejected the 1928 revision of the Book of Common Prayer, leading to calls for separation of church and state to prevent political interference in matters of worship. Nevertheless, the Church of England remained the state church.


Jurisdictions where a Lutheran church has been established as a state religion include the Nordic countries.

  •  Denmark: section 4 of the Danish constitution confirms the Church of Denmark as the state church.[19]
  •  Iceland: the Icelandic constitution confirms the Church of Iceland as the state church of Iceland.[20] (73.8% of population members at 1 January 2015) [21]
  •  Norway: the Constitution of Norway stipulates that The Church of Norway, an Evangelical-Lutheran church, will remain the Established Church of Norway and will as such be supported by the State.”[22] This was amended in 2012, from“Evangelical-Lutheran religion remains the public religion of the State”. The church is granted autonomy in doctrine and appointment of bishops.[23][24][25]
  •  Finland: the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland has a special relationship with the Finnish state, its internal structure being described in a special law, the Church Act.[26] The Church Act can be amended only by a decision of the synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church and subsequent ratification by the Parliament of Finland. The Church Act is protected by the Finnish Constitution and the state can not change the Church Act without changing the constitution. The church has a power to tax its members and all corporations unless a majority of shareholders are members of theFinnish Orthodox Church. The state collects these taxes for the church, for a fee. On the other hand, the church is required to give a burial place for everyone in its graveyards.[27] (77.2% of population members at the end of 2011).[28]The President of the Republic of Finland also decides the themes for intercession days. The church does not consider itself a state church, as the Finnish state does not have the power to influence its internal workings or its theology, although it has a veto in those changes of the internal structure which require changing the Church Act. Neither does the Finnish state accord any precedence to Lutherans or the Lutheran faith in its own acts.
  •  Sweden: the Church of Sweden was until year 2000 the official state church of Sweden and Lutheran Christianity was therefore the state religion of Sweden. In spite of the separation between the state and the church in 2000, theChurch of Sweden still has a special status in Sweden. Sweden is therefore often seen as a midway between having a state religion and not. The church has its own legal regulation in the Church of Sweden Act, which regulates the church’s basic structure, creeds and right to tax members of the church (ca 70% of the population). According to the Act, the Church of Sweden must be a democratic, Lutheran people’s church. Only the Swedish Riksdag can change this fact. The connections to the Swedish royal family are complicated. For example, the Swedish constitution stipulates that the Monarch of Sweden must be a true Lutheran, accepting the doctrine of the Church of Sweden. All members of the royal house must accept the same doctrine to be able to inherit the Throne of Sweden. The parishes of the Church of Sweden are still the smallest administrative entities in Sweden and are used as civil registration and taxation units.[citation needed][original research?]

In 1928, Queen Salote Tupou III, who was a member of the church, established the Free Wesleyan Church as the state religion of Tonga.[citation needed] The chief pastor of the Free Wesleyan Church serves as the representative of the people of Tonga and of the Church at the coronation of a King or Queen of Tonga where he anoints and crowns the Monarch. In Opposition to the establishment of the Free Wesleyan Church as a state religion, the Church of Tonga separated from the Free Wesleyan Church in 1928.

Calvinism (Reformed Tradition)Edit
  •  Tuvalu: The Church of Tuvalu is the state religion, although in practice this merely entitles it to “the privilege of performing special services on major national events”.[29] The Constitution of Tuvalu guarantees freedom of religion, including the freedom to practice, the freedom to change religion, the right not to receive religious instruction at school or to attend religious ceremonies at school, and the right not to “take an oath or make an affirmation that is contrary to his religion or belief”.[30]
  •  Scotland: The Church of Scotland is recognized as the national church of Scotland, but is not a state church and thus differs from the Church of England. Its constitution, which is recognised by acts of the British Parliament, gives it complete independence from the state.

Islam (non-denominational)Edit

Main article: Non-denominational Muslim

States which define Islam as the state religion, but do not specify either Sunni or Shia.

  •  Bangladesh : The 1972 constitution did not include any religion as the state religion. However, in 1988, general Ershad inserted Islam as the state religion by the Eighth Amendment Act. 1988; section 2A specifies “The state religion of the Republic is Islam, but other religions may be practiced in peace and harmony in the Republic.”.[33] As part of a series of rulings, on 4 October 2010 the High Court ruled that Bangladesh is a secular state.[34] Section 12 of part II of the constitution identifies Secularism and freedom of religion as fundamental principles of state policy[35]
  •  Djibouti[36]
  •  Iraq : Article 2 of the Constitution of Iraq confirms Islam as the official religion of the State.
  •  Pakistan : article 2 of the Constitution of Pakistan confirms Islam as the state religion.[37]
  •  Palestine: the Palestinian Constitution defines Islam as the state religion, but ensures “‘respect and sanctity of all other heavenly religions shall be maintained'”.[38]
  •  Tunisia: Art. 1, Constitution of Tunisia

Sunni IslamEdit

Shiʾa IslamEdit


Mixed Shia and SunniEdit

Buddhist countriesEdit

Governments where Buddhism, either a specific form of, or the whole, has been established as an official religion:

Theravada BuddhismEdit

  •  Cambodia[39]
  •  Sri Lanka: the constitution of Sri Lanka accords Buddhism the “foremost place”, although it does not identify it as a state religion.[40]
  •  Thailand: the 2007 Thai constitution, recognises Buddhism as “the religion of Thai tradition with the most adherents”, however, it is not formally identified as a state religion. It requires the government to “patronize and protect Buddhism and other religions”.[41]
  •  Myanmar: Section 361 of the constitution states that “The Union recognizes special position of Buddhism as the faith professed by the great majority of the citizens of the Union.”.[42]

Vajrayana BuddhismEdit

Status of religion in IsraelEdit

See also: Jewish state

Israel is defined in several of its laws as a “Jewish and democratic state” (medina yehudit ve-demokratit). However, the term “Jewish” is a polyseme that can describe the Jewish people as both an ethnic or a religious group. The debate about the meaning of the term “Jewish” and its legal and social applications is one of the most profound issues with which Israeli society deals. The problem of the status of religion in Israel, even though it is relevant to all religions, usually refers to the status of Judaism in Israeli society. Thus, even though from a constitutional point of view Judaism is not the state religion in Israel, its status nevertheless determines relations between religion and state and the extent to which religion influences the political center.[44]

The State of Israel supports religious institutions, particularly Orthodox Jewish ones, and recognizes the “religious communities” as carried over from those recognized under the British Mandate. These are: Jewish and Christian (Eastern Orthodox, Latin [Catholic], Gregorian-Armenian, Armenian-Catholic, Syrian [Catholic], Chaldean [Uniate], Greek Catholic Melkite, Maronite, and Syrian Orthodox).

Everyone is free to believe in whatever they please, but it is considered a private matter. We don’t need monumental buildings to protect our faith. God didn’t ask us to judge people in his place. Who are we to judge and punish in his name? He knows what to do of us when our time comes.

In Secular countries such as France, they’ve associated the word secularism with Atheism, it is the biggest non-believing country in europe.

Among the founders of secularism such as James Madison, Thomas Jefferson or Jules Ferry, none of them has made any religious discrimination as they do now.

But it is also true that “Your beliefs are your private religion”.

What about … #7

We’re not quite alone in our Milky Way, we may think of ourselves as Aliens, we travel each day on our spaceship at about 721,000 km/h and 935,000 km/h depending on the day of the year as I have found in this website http://www.urban-astronomer.com/astronomy/how-fast-is-the-earth-travelling-through-space/ so between 17304000 km/day to 22440000 km/day around the Galaxy, that means that we won’t be in the same spot we were yesterday for ~250 million years, but we’re not lonely, we have stars all around us, to keep us company in this huge univers, and that’s  not all, our galaxy is traveling at about 1080000km/h so 25920000km/day.  It’s breathtaking isn’t it?

Now as we’re all aware, this isn’t the only galaxy around, we have a bunch them around, this are the closest ones:

# Galaxy Type Dist from Earth Magnitude Group


Notes Diameter (ly)
Mly Mpc M m
  1 Milky Way IR Spitzer.jpg Milky Way SBbc 0.027[2] 0.008[2] −20.8 [1] n/a Local Group Home galaxy of Earth 100,000-180,000 ly
  2 Canis Major Dwarf Irr (status as galaxy disputed) 0.025[3] 0.008 −14.5 23.3 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way(accretion by Milky Way) N/A
  3 S sgrdw1.jpg Sagittarius Dwarf SphrSagDEG dSph/E7 0.081 0.024[4] −12.67[4] 4.5[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way(partial accretion byMilky Way) 10,000 ly
  4 Ursa Major II Dwarf dSph 0.098 0.030 −4.2 14.3 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way(accretion by Milky Way) ~1,800 ly
  5 LH 95.jpg Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Irr/SB(s)m 0.163 0.050[4] −17.93[4] 0.9[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 14,00 ly
  6 Boötes I d Sph 0.197[5] 0.060 −5.8[6] 13.1 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
  7 Small magellanic cloud.jpg Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC, NGC 292) SB(s)m pec 0.206 0.063[4] −16.35[4] 2.7[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 7,000 ly
  8 Ursa Minor Dwarf dE4 0.206 0.063[4] −7.13[4] 11.9[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way
  9 PGC 60095 Draco Dwarf Hubble WikiSky.jpg Draco Dwarf(DDO 208) dE0 pec 0.258 0.079[4] −8.74[4] 10.9[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Waywith a large amount of dark matter ~2,700 x 1,900 ly
 10 NGC 2419 Hubble WikiSky.jpg NGC 2419 Glob Clus 0.275 0.084 −9.5/−11 ? 9.06 Brightest remote MW globular cluster 520 ly
 11 Sextans Dwarf Sph dSph 0.281 0.086[4] −7.98[4] 12[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 8,400 ly
 12 Sculptor Dwarf Galaxy ESO.jpg Sculptor Dwarf(E351-G30) dE3 0.287 0.088[4] −9.77[4] 10.1[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 13 Ursa Major I Dwarf (UMa I dSph) dSph 0.330 0.10[7] −6.75[7] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way A few thousand ly
 14 Carina Dwarf Galaxy.jpg Carina Dwarf(E206-G220) dE3 0.330 0.10[4] −8.97[7] 11.3[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 1,600 ly
 15 Fornax Dwarf.jpg Fornax Dwarf(E356-G04) dSPh/E2 0.46 0.14[1] −11.5[4] 9.28[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 16 Leo II Dwarf(Leo B, DDO 93) dE0 pec 0.701[8] 0.215 −9.23[4] 12.45[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 4,100 ly (tidal)
 17 Ugc5470.jpg Leo I Dwarf(DDO 74, UGC 5470) dE3 0.820[8] 0.25 −10.97[4] 11.18[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 18 Leo T Dwarf G[5] 1.370 0.42[9] 16[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way? 2,300 ly
 19 Phoenix Dwarf Hubble WikiSky.jpg Phoenix Dwarf Galaxy (P 6830) IAm 1.44 0.44 −10.22[4] 13.07[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 20 NGC6822.jpg Barnard’s Galaxy (NGC 6822) IB(s)m IV-V 1.630[8] 0.50 −15.22[4] 9.32[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 7,000 ly
 21 MGC1[10] Glob Clus 2 0.615 −9.2 Local Group Isolated cluster at ~200 kpc from M31 N/A
 22 Ngc185.jpg NGC 185 dE3 pec 2.010 [11] 0.62 −14.76[4] 9.99[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 23 Andromeda II dE0 2.130 [11] 0.65 −9.33[4] 15.10[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 24 IC10 BVHa.jpg IC 10 (UGC 192) dIrr IV/BCD[5] 2.2 0.67 −15.57[4] 12.2[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 25 NGC147.jpg NGC 147 (DDO 3) dE5 pec 2.200[11] 0.68 −14.9[4] 10.36[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 26 Leo A Hubble WikiSky.jpg Leo A (Leo III, DDO 69) IBm V 2.250[8] 0.80[12] −11.68[12] 12.92 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 27 IC1613-3.jpg IC 1613 (UGC 668) IAB(s)m V 2.350[8] 0.72 −14.51[4] 9.92[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 28 Andromeda I Hubble WikiSky.jpg Andromeda I dE3 pec 2.430[11] 0.75 −10.87[4] 13.9[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 29 Andromeda III dE2 2.440[11] 0.75 −9.30[4] 15.20[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 30 Cetus Dwarf dSph/E4 2.460[11] 0.75 −10.18[4] 14.4[1] Local Group Satellite ofAndromeda[4] N/A
 31 Hs-1999-40-a-full jpg.jpg M32 (NGC 221) E2 2.480;[8] 0.76 −15.96[4] 8.73[1] Local Group Close Satellite ofAndromeda 6,500 ly
 32 Cassiopeia Dwarf (PGC 2807155) Hubble WikiSky.jpg Cassiopeia Dwarf (Cas dSph,Andromeda VII) dSph 2.490[11] 0.76 −11.67[4] 13.65[1] Local Group Satellite ofAndromeda[4] N/A
 33 Andromeda IX dE 2.500[11] 0.77 −7.5[4] Local Group Satellite ofAndromeda[4] N/A
 34 LGS 3 ubv.jpg LGS 3 dIrr/dSph 2.510[11] 0.77 −7.96[4] 16.18[1] Local Group Satellite ofTriangulum[citation needed] N/A
 35 Andromeda V dSph 2.52[11] 0.77 −8.41[4] 16.67[1] Local Group Satellite ofAndromeda[4] N/A
 36 Pegasus dSph.gif Pegasus Dwarf Sph (And VI) dSph 2.55[11] 0.78 −10.80[4] 14.05[1] Local Group Satellite ofAndromeda[4] N/A
 37 Andromeda VIII dSph[13] 2.7 0.828 −15.6 9.1 Local Group Tidally distorted dwarf close to Andromedadiscovered 2003[13] N/A
 — Andromeda Galaxy (with h-alpha).jpg Andromeda Galaxy (M31) SA(s)b 2.56[11] 0.79 −21.58[4] 4.17[1] Local Group Largest Galaxy in the Local Group, with at least 19 satellite galaxies 220,000 ly
 38 M33.jpg Triangulum Galaxy (M33) SAc 2.64 [11] 0.81 −18.87[4] 6.19[1] Local Group Most distant (difficult) naked eye object 60,000 l

Two of these will collide with the Milky Way, M31 and M33 which their real name is Andromeda and Triangulum. 

Milky Way and Andromeda are traveling toward each other at 400 000 km/h, so unfortunately we need 4 billion years for them to collide. But really it will be a splendid view!

Maybe we’ll be able to see them from heaven?  Hope so.

What about … #6

Did you ever made a wish that came true shortly after? Did you ever said to yourself “Wow, I’ve been in the right place at the right moment” ? Well usually that kind of stuff we call it “What a coincidence!”. But if we think deeply over it, we’ll find out that nothing is a coincidence.

Dr Deepak Chopra said in a book called Synchro Destiny that coincidences are in fact a multitude of incidents happening at the same time, so they are co-incidents. Everything has a point. If it rains, that’s because the water has evaporated somewhere, and a certain heat turned the water into steam which condensed into clouds, from which water drops fall. So when something good or bad happens, it is meant too happen, there isn’t a thing you could do to avoid it. Here is are two verses saying the same thing:

The Cow 2: 216 

But it may be that you dislike something while it is good for you, and it may be that you like something while it is bad for you. God knows, and you do not know.

Hud 10:107

If God afflicts you with harm, none can remove it except He. And if He wants good for you, none can repel His grace. He makes it reach whomever He wills of His servants. He is the Forgiver, the Merciful.

I know that as human beings, we have our weaknesses, but we have to make our best to avoid crying or revenge over a property (either a pen or a ranch) we’ve lost or to take pride over something we did which we might not have succeeded if we weren’t meant to succeed.

We live in a chess board, we are either the Pawns, the Knights or even the Kings, so we may be in checkmate anytime, we mustn’t be desperate every time something goes wrong, nothing lasts down here. Play your part and try to win it for the next life.