What about … #34

The moon was formed approximately at the same time that Earth was formed. At that time much of the Earth was molten because of frequent collisions with other bodies which led to extreme volcanism, so was the moon.

Among the few theories which describes the moon’s formation, I think that the “double planet hypothesis” is the best, but it needs some adjustments.

The idea is that the Earth and Moon formed at about the same time in the same region of the solar system and were close enough together to form a bound system with each other is acceptable. The problem for which this theory is not accepted is because of the great difference in composition of the Earth and Moon. If they formed at about the same time in the same region of space by the same mechanisms, then they would be expected to be very similar in structure and composition. But the Earth has an average density of 5.5 gm/cm3 and the Moon has a much lower overall density, 3.34 gm/cm3, indicating that it lacks the iron core.

The densities of Mercury, Venus, and Mars are 5.4 gm/cm3, 5.24 gm/cm3, and 3.94 gm/cm3 respectively. Even the majority of meteorites have densities greater than the Moon and many are mostly iron, suggesting that a large iron content is part of the expected composition of objects formed in the Earth’s part of the solar system.

Now, in favor of this hypothesis include the fact that the Moon’s composition is very similar to material in the Earth’s mantle. Furthermore, the oxygen isotopic content of the Moon rocks is identical to that in Earth rocks and the differentiated meteorites, suggesting that it formed in the same part of the solar system.

If we look closely to the four rocky planets i.e Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars we may notice that the two closest planets to the sun have similar densities – maybe because they are close to the sun. While the last four are gas planets – probably because they are farther from the sun. So I don’t see why Earth’s density must be different from Mars’ !

If so, than the anomaly comes Earth and not the moon. So to understand from where this excess of density comes from we must turn to Asteroids and meteorites.

In the Earth’s Late Bombardment, Earth was hit by thousands of spacial objects which were made of different properties. One of them was what Astronomers think was a collision between Earth and Theia that happened at about 4.4 to 4.45 bya; about 100 million years after the Solar System began to form.

Theia might have been made entirely of iron which brought iron to the earth’s core, either Theia or another is what changed Earth’s composition.

Personally I believe that the moon was a separate celestial body with the same properties that Earth had. Then the semi-molten Earth was struck by a giant iron asteroid which turned a life-less planet into what it is now.


What about … #33

What is time exactly? It is a system of measurement for a certain period that we find either short or long.
Time doesn’t exist by itself – i.e after the big bang, there was no day 1.
The universe didn’t take an amount of time to be what it is now. Everywhere it is still “day one,” because there is no day at all. There are no clocks out there, no nights, subsequently no days either.
Time as we know it, was invented by humans. So time exists for the living things such as plants, animals and humans, we have been giving time for non-living things such as planets, galaxies, even the universe, to have a notion of how old thigs might be, but that isn’t how things are in the reality.
The Holy Scriptures tells us that the world has been created in 6 days, see this previous post for details, so this proves that God’s timescale and ours aren’t the same.
Time is relative for each of us, if we didn’t have the “time”, we would never agree on when to plant seeds, how old a child is or if it’s summer or fall. But of course everything has a second side of the story. If there is “time” there is an end to it too, which means death. No time, no death.
So isn’t it a little of our fault to have invented the notion of time? If we didn’t, maybe “time” would have never existed

What about …. #32

Light or no light; this is the question.

We’re all fascinated by those splendid starry nights, where we see ourselves as small insignificant beings looking at a vast realm of wonders. We’re aware that those shinning white dots are painted on a black background, and that is what this is all about. I’ve been wondering about the darkness of space since I can remember.  I always thought that space was dark because that was its colour, space was THE black colour. Filled with different types of electromagnetic radiation which gives us about 97% to 3% of matter. But I’ve learned lately thanks to Joseph through the RTU blog that our eyes may deceive us sometimes. As I’ve written in a previous post called “Can we catch rainbows ”, “Pure white light” or that which comes from our Sun can be split into a continuous spectrum of frequencies that range from the shortwave ultraviolet to the near infra red longer wavelengths. Our human eye can distinguish around 10 million different such frequencies, not just 7. Seven has become a common misconception adopted as reality simply for most humans convenience. We can make black colour by mixing yellow, bleu and red, even though it’s never totally black.  To make things worse, black is the colour of an object which absorbs all of the colours of visible light, for which we can  assume to be the same as no light. 

Our brain shows us what our eyes detect; they are light receptors. So when there is no light, there is nothing to be received, therefore we don’t see anything. Such as when we turn off the lights and we stand in a pitch “black” room. The room hasn’t turned black when the lights went off, it’s our brain that perceived the darkness as if it was  blackness.  We may still touch the chair or the table but we’re not able to see them. The universe uses the same mechanism with a slightly difference. The universe is only dark in the sense that it is devoid of radiation that can be detected by the human eye; if it is dark to the human, it does not make it devoid of electromagnetic radiation. 

Now, to answer the main question, is space dark or black ? 

It is dark. Because we perceive what has no light, black. If we take a region of space full of stars, we would notice that space is filled with light and colours. Space is a place of wonders, with which we would never be fully acquainted.

But in the reality, is space really dark? If we could travel to the end of the universe, would we see a different horizon? Or is darkness/nothingness an illusion perceived only by the human eye?

What about … #31

We’re used to think that things happen as we see them. When we look at a fallen tree, the first thing that comes to our mind is that the tree in question is dead or is dying either ways we know its fate. But if we set different eyes upon it we’ll be able to see that its story is much more than a simple fallen tree.

The tree use its roots to take in water and other essential nutrients. The leaves then use the water and carbon dioxide from the air, in combination with sunlight, to turn the water and carbon dioxide into glucose, also giving off the byproduct oxygen in the process.

If we take a step closer, we might see a few inhabitants enjoying their lives on it such as ants, worms, spiders. A deeper look might bring us to realize that these tiny creepers have built their nest under the bark for example. The big picture remains the same, a tree has fallen. But the other creatures which depend on it won’t appear unless we take a deeper look.

Have we ever watched a flock of birds flying in harmony? They all change direction at once following a random pattern. They are somehow synchronized when they do their spectacular dance. Have we ever seen one of them missing a turn, stopping in mid-air saying : Uh Oh, I’ve missed again. Hey! wait for me… ?

Have we ever watched a school of fish swimming as if they were following an invisible trail? They are hundreds zigzagging at the same time, at the same speed. None of them went astray! How do we explain this?

How can we explain this special bond between them? In fact it’s quite easy, they are all connected spirituality, they know/feel what their mates will do, so they do it too. They’re not the only creatures doing extraordinary things without an apparent reason.

We, human beings may have been able to do better than them, but we’re too focused on what we see, that those who can use that power are called Saints by some, Sorcerers in the middle age, Shaman…

Unfortunately we can’t prove these facts because they’re not part of the material world in which we live. In the Holy Scriptures God tells us that the Human Being can’t live without a spirit. The body is just a box in which the real person lives. Without it we wouldn’t be able to live on earth. We can’t be conscious of that unless we ask ourselves some questions without putting the easiest answer before us. For instance when we’re reading who is performing the action?

We read the letters composing a word, a word making a sentence, a sentence forming a paragraph, etc… when we process these, our mind translates what we read into a video or a picture depending on what we’re reading. If we’re going through a hunting magazine, our mind will show us for example the new outfit we’re reading about or the way an animal behaves according to the article. But if we’re seeing that outfit or that animal, who is reading the letters turning them into words, words into sentences…? If we’re busy watching a great movie on tv we’ll hardly write a perfect letter to our boss! The watcher in us is what we call spirit, the one who gets the intuition, who wakes us in the middle of the night for no particular reason to find that our neighbor’s apartment is on fire, who suggest us the right decisions, etc…

I suggest you to read The Power of Intention by Dr Wayne or Synchro Destiny by Deepak Chopra for detailed explanations. And you may read as well here a previous post on the subject.

What about … #30

Crypting and decrypting is part of an encryption project. Some call it cipher and decipher but it’s the same mechanism. When you start encrypting a document for example, you start by choosing the key with which you’ll hide the real message. Nowadays we use programs such as Axcrypt, Kruptos, Folder Lock, etc… which gives us the opportunity to choose between different forms of encryption and without bothering ourselves to find a way to hide a message. But before the 20th century everything was different. There were different methods which were ingenious for their time. A little bit of History:
The earliest known use of cryptography is found in non-standard hieroglyphs carved into the wall of a tomb from the Old Kingdom of Egypt circa 1900 BCE. These are not thought to be serious attempts at secret communications, however, but rather to have been attempts at mystery, intrigue, or even amusement for literate onlookers. These are examples of still other uses of cryptography, or of something that looks (impressively if misleadingly) like it. Some clay tablets from Mesopotamia somewhat later are clearly meant to protect information—one dated near 1500 BCE was found to encrypt a craftsman’s recipe for pottery glaze, presumably commercially valuable.Later still, Hebrew scholars made use of simple monoalphabetic substitution ciphers (such as the Atbash cipher) beginning perhaps around 500 to 600 BCE.

David Kahn notes in The Codebreakers that modern cryptology originated among the Arabs, the first people to systematically document cryptanalytic methods. The invention of the frequency-analysis technique for breaking monoalphabetic substitution ciphers, by Al-Kindi, an Arab mathematician, sometime around AD 800 proved to be the single most significant cryptanalytic advance until World War II. Al-Kindi wrote a book on cryptography entitled Risalah fi Istikhraj al-Mu’amma (Manuscript for the Deciphering Cryptographic Messages), in which he described the first cryptanalytic techniques, including some for polyalphabetic ciphers, cipher classification, Arabic phonetics and syntax, and, most importantly, gave the first descriptions on frequency analysis. He also covered methods of encipherments, cryptanalysis of certain encipherments, and statistical analysis of letters and letter combinations in Arabic.

Ahmad al-Qalqashandi (AD 1355–1418) wrote the Subh al-a ‘sha, a 14-volume encyclopedia which included a section on cryptology. This information was attributed to Ibn al-Durayhim who lived from AD 1312 to 1361, but whose writings on cryptography have been lost. The list of ciphers in this work included both substitution and transposition, and for the first time, a cipher with multiple substitutions for each plaintext letter. Also traced to Ibn al-Durayhim is an exposition on and worked example of cryptanalysis, including the use of tables of letter frequencies and sets of letters which cannot occur together in one word.

The earliest example of the homophonic substitution cipher is the one used by Duke of Mantua in the early 1400s. Homophonic cipher replaces each letter with multiple symbols depending on the letter frequency. The cipher is ahead of the time because it combines monoalphabetic and polyalphabetic features.

Essentially all ciphers remained vulnerable to the cryptanalytic technique of frequency analysis until the development of the polyalphabetic cipher, and many remained so thereafter. The polyalphabetic cipher was most clearly explained by Leon Battista Alberti around the year AD 1467, for which he was called the “father of Western cryptology”.

So, as long as we have the key to decipher a document, everything is ok, but when we don’t, the problem begins.
Let’s take an example:
Let’s say that we have an ancient book with several chapters – written in a common language – among these chapters some of them have curious detached letters in the beginning, some repeat themselves and some don’t. These strange letters don’t form a word and are not an abbreviation, so what are they exactly? We start reading those special chapters, but nothing in them seems to refer to these letters. So I assume that the solution is elsewhere.
Maybe they’re not letters after all, what if they were numbers? But how are we going to find the solution if we don’t know what those numbers refer to? And this goes on till we find the key to unlock the message.
At least nowadays it is much much easier, if we don’t have the password, we may find another way around…

The winner of Around a cup of Tea

The winner:


My first thought was; ‘are those fuel pumps’ , followed by ‘ I really hope that isn’t a petrol leak…’

My answer:

This picture has been taken in Recife, Brazil, a few years back. I don’t think that the flood is due to rain, it must have come from below. All the lower part of town was flooded.